Citations with the tag: PHENOTYPIC plasticity
Results 1 - 50
- Erratum to, "Sox2 Promotes Malignancy in Glioblastoma by Regulating Plasticity and Astrocytic Differentiation," published in Neoplasia, Volume 16, number 3 on pages 193-206.
// Neoplasia; May2014, Vol. 16 Issue 5, p461
A correction to the article "Sox2 Promotes Malignancy in Glioblastoma by Regulating Plasticity and Astrocytic Differentiation," published in Volume 16, Number 3 of "Neoplasia" journal is presented.
- DOPAMINERGIC PLASTICITY IN THE ADULT DIFFERENTIATED AVIAN RETINA.
De Mello, M. C. F.; Henze, I.; Gardino, P. F.; Fleming, R.; De Mello, F. G. // Neurotoxicity Research; 2008, Vol. 13 Issue 2, p138
In the chick retina, differentiation of tyrosine hydroxylase phenotype (TH+) is observed after the 12th embryonic day (ED). The birth of committed dopaminergic amacrines occurs between the 5th and 7th ED. It was postulated that intrinsic retinal factors, in the interval between the 7th and 12th...
- Frontiers in phenotypic plasticity research: new questions about mechanisms, induced responses and ecological impacts.
Ellers, Jacintha; Stuefer, Josef // Evolutionary Ecology; May2010, Vol. 24 Issue 3, p523
The article discusses various topics published within the issue including the employment of phenotypic plasticity, the possible mechanism for transcriptional plasticity in stress responses, and induced defence responses in plants to herbivory and plant pathogens.
- Distributed synergistic plasticity and cerebellar learning.
Gao, Zhenyu; van Beugen, Boeke J.; De Zeeuw, Chris I. // Nature Reviews Neuroscience; Dec2012, Vol. 13 Issue 12, p878
A correction to the article "Distributed synergistic plasticity and cerbellar learning" published in earlier issue is presented.
- PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY IN THE NUMBER OF CENTRAL STRUTTED PROCESSES IN CYCLOTELLA MENEGHINIANA (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE).
Shirokawa, Y.; Karino, K.; Mayama, S.; Wakamoto, Y.; Shimada, M. // Phycologia; Jul2009 Supplement, p120
An abstract of the article "Phenotypic Plasticity in the Number of Central Strutted Processes in Cyclotella Meneghiniana (Bacillariophyceae)," by Y. Shirokawa, K. Karino, S. Mayama, Y. Wakamoto and M. Shimada is presented.
Shirokawa, Y.; Karino, K.; Mayama, S.; Wakamoto, Y.; Shimada, M. // Journal of Child Neurology; Feb2013, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p282
A correction to the article "3p Interstitial Deletion: Novel Case Report and Review" in a 2012 issue.
Shirokawa, Y.; Karino, K.; Mayama, S.; Wakamoto, Y.; Shimada, M. // American Scientist; Mar/Apr2008, Vol. 96 Issue 2, p93
A correction to the article "The Phenotypic Plasticity of Death Valley's Pupfish," that was published in the January-February issue of "American Scientist" is presented.
- Phenotypic plasticity of labile traits in the wild.
BROMMER, Jon E. // Current Zoology; Aug2013, Vol. 59 Issue 4, p485
Individual-based studies allow quantification of phenotypic plasticity in behavioural, life-history and other labile traits. The study of phenotypic plasticity in the wild can shed new light on the ultimate objectives (1) whether plasticity itself can evolve or is constrained by its genetic...
- The Role of Leaf Lobation in Elongation Responses to Shade in the Rosette-forming Forb Serratula tinctoria (Asteraceae).
Marina Semchenko; Kristjan Zobel // Annals of Botany; Jul2007, Vol. 100 Issue 1, p83
: Background and Aims Lobed leaves are considered selectively advantageous in conditions of high irradiance. However, most studies have involved woody species, with only a few considering the role of leaf lobation in herbaceous rosette species. In this study, it is hypothesized that, in addition...
- Phenotypic plasticity in the Antarctic nototheniid fish Trematomus newnesi: a guide to the identification of typical, large mouth and intermediate morphs.
Barrera-Oro, Esteban; Eastman, Joseph; Moreira, Eugenia // Polar Biology; Jul2012, Vol. 35 Issue 7, p1047
Trematomus newnesi is a common inshore species with a circum-Antarctic distribution. It provides the only known example of phenotypic plasticity in Antarctic notothenioid fish, existing as populations of typical, large mouth and intermediate morphs that can be difficult to identify. Using...
- Phenotypic changes in reproductive traits with changes in stock size of the starspotted smooth-hound Mustelus manazo in Tokyo Bay, Japan.
Park, Jeong-Chae; Oyama, Masaaki; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kodama, Keita; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro // Fisheries Science; Mar2013, Vol. 79 Issue 2, p193
Reproductive traits are among the primary determinants of population dynamics, and their changes could affect stock size. We investigated differences in reproductive traits of the starspotted smooth-hound Mustelus manazo in Tokyo Bay between the 1990s (a low-stock period) and the 2000s (a...
- PHENOTYPIC VARIATION IN MOOSE: THE ISLAND RULE AND THE MOOSE OF ISLE ROYALE.
Peterson, Rolf O.; Vucetich, John A.; Beyer, Dean; Schrage, Mike; Räikkönen, Jannikke // Alces; 2011, Vol. 47, p125
There is strong empirical support for the island rule, whereby body size in insular populations of animals tends toward gigantism in small-bodied species and dwarfism in large-bodied species (>10kg). For large-bodied species, underlying reasons for dwarfism in insular populations include lack of...
Peterson, Rolf O.; Vucetich, John A.; Beyer, Dean; Schrage, Mike; Räikkönen, Jannikke // Journal of Experimental Botany; Jul2013, Vol. 64 Issue 7, p2118
A correction to the article "Crassulacean acid metabolism under severe light limitation: a matter of plasticity in the shadows?" that was published in a 2011 issue of the journal is presented.
- Self-tuning spike-timing dependent plasticity curves to simplify models and improve learning.
Richert, Micah; Szatmary, Botond; Izhikevich, Eugene // BMC Neuroscience; 2013, Vol. 14 Issue Suppl 1, p1
An abstract of the article "Self-tuning spike-timing dependent plasticity curves to simplify models and improve learning" by Micah Richert, Botond Szatmary, and Eugene Izhikevich is presented.
- Functional role of opponent, dopamine modulated D1/D2 plasticity in reinforcement learning.
Jitsev, Jenia; Abraham, Nobi; Morrison, Abigail; Tittgemeyer, Marc // BMC Neuroscience; 2013, Vol. 14 Issue Suppl 1, p1
An abstract of the article "Functional role of opponent, dopamine modulated D1/D2 plasticity in reinforcement learning" by Jenia Jitsev, Nobi Abraham, Abigail Morrison, and Marc Tittgemeyer is presented.
- On the influence of inhibitory STDP on balanced state random networks.
Effenberger, Felix; Levina, Anna; Jost, Jürgen // BMC Neuroscience; 2013, Vol. 14 Issue Suppl 1, p1
An abstract of the article "On the influence of inhibitory STDP on balanced state random networks" by Felix Effenberger Felix, Anna Levina, and JÃ¼rgen Jost is presented.
- New frontiers in phenotypic plasticity and evolution.
Hollander, J; Snell-Rood, E; Foster, S // Heredity; Oct2015, Vol. 115 Issue 4, p273
An introduction is presented in which the editor discusses various reports published within the issue on topics including plasticity across ontogeny, plasticity and individual variation, and life history plasticity in threespine sticklebacks.
Hollander, J; Snell-Rood, E; Foster, S // Journal of Experimental Botany; Sep2015, Vol. 66 Issue 19, p6079
A correction to the article "Independent genetic control of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel weight determination and its phenotypic plasticity" that was published in a 2014 issue is presented.
- Phenotypic correlations in a patient with ring chromosome 22.
Demirhan, Osman; Tun�, Erdal // Indian Journal of Human Genetics; May-Aug2010, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p97
Ring chromosome 22, a rare cytogenetic anomaly, has been described in over 60 cases in the medical literature. The aim of this report was to present a case carrying ring chromosome 22, and her family. It is a case report of a patient presented at Medical Faculty of ï¿½ukurova University in...
- Phenotypic variability in a cohort of 40 Italian subjects carrying mutations in the gene EDA.
Guazzarotti, L.; Tadini, G.; Mancini, G. E.; Giglio, S.; Sani, I.; Nannini, P.; Bosoni, M.; Bottero, A.; Caimi, A.; Morelli, M.; Zuccotti, G. V. // Head & Face Medicine; 2012 Supplement 1, Vol. 8 Issue Supplment 1, p1
An abstract of the article "Phenotypic variability in a cohort of 40 Italian subjects carrying mutations in the gene EDA," by L. Guazzarotti, G. Tadini, G. E. Mancini, S. Giglio, I. Sani, P. Nannini, M. Bosoni, A. Bottero, A. Caimi, M. Morelli, and G. V. Zuccotti is presented.
- Nutrient mediation of behavioral plasticity and resource allocation in a xylem-feeding leafhopper.
Brodbeck, Brent V.; Andersen, Peter C.; Mizell, III., Russell F. // Oecologia; Jan2011, Vol. 165 Issue 1, p111
Phenotypic plasticity may be critical for nutrient-limited organisms that allocate ingested nutrients to the competing demands of reproduction and survivorship. Leafhoppers that feed on xylem fluid allow assessment of plasticity in response to the constant selective pressure of nutritional...
- Adapting to Change.
Chase, Jonathan M. // PLoS Biology; Jul2013, Vol. 11 Issue 7, p1
The article focuses on a study related to a species' adaption to changing climates, which found that to avoid extinction results from the interaction between phenotypic plasticity and micro-evolutionary change, a species adapt to climatic changes. Data from a population of great tits at Wytham...
- Phenotypic plasticity in the Antarctic fish Trematomus newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the South Shetland Islands.
Piacentino, Gabriela L. M.; Barrera-Oro, Esteban // Polar Biology; Oct2009, Vol. 32 Issue 10, p1407
The presence of the two morphs, â€œtypicalâ€ and â€œlarge mouthâ€, in the Antarctic fish species Trematomus newnesi (Perciformes, Notothenioidei) was recorded for the first time in nearshore waters of the South Shetland Islands (Potter Cove) and western Antarctic Peninsula...
- Seasonality and synchrony of reproduction in three species of nectarivorous Philippines bats.
Heideman, Paul D.; Utzurrum, Ruth C. B. // BMC Ecology; 2003, Vol. 3, p11
Background: Differences among species and among years in reproductive seasonality (the tendency for clusters of events to fall at approximately the same point in each year) and synchrony (amount of clustering of events within a year) have been intensively studied in bats, but are difficult to...
- How do you feel?
Feliciano, Pamela // Nature Genetics; Jun2012, Vol. 44 Issue 6, p618
The article presents an overview of a study conducted by Gary Lewin and colleagues on touch phenotypes that show that genetics influence touch sensation in people with slightly impaired touch acuity and sensitivity.
- BIODIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE MAIN TOXIGENIC FUSARIUM FUNGI.
Gagkaeva, T.Yu.; Gavrilova, O. P.; Levitin, M. M. // Biosphere; 2014, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p36
Fusarium is a large complex genus of fungi comprising pathogenic biotrophs, saprotrophs and endophytes, some of which produce mycotoxins. Certain Fusarium species are more broadly adapted to environmental variability (Fusarium poae, F. sporotrichioides) than others (F. graminearum, F. culmorum,...
- MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE EXOSKELETON IN THE INTERTIDAL BARNACLE JEHLIUS CIRRATUS (DARWIN, 1854) GROWING AT DIFFERENT DENSITIES.
López, Boris A.; Catalán, Alexis M.; Barriga, Diego A.; López, Daniel A. // Journal of Crustacean Biology; Mar2014, Vol. 34 Issue 2, p129
We evaluated density-dependent morphological variation in exoskeletal structures associated with feeding and reproduction in the intertidal cirripede Jehlius cirratus (Darwin, 1854) in Metri Bay, southern Chile. In July of 2010, we undertook artificial density reductions of J. cirratus that...
- Delimitation of Russula Subgenus Amoenula in Korea Using Three Molecular Markers.
Myung Soo Park; Fong, Jonathan J.; Hyun Lee; Seung-Yoon Oh; Paul Eunil Jung; Young Ju Min; Soon Ja Seok; Young Woon Lim // Mycobiology; Dec2013, Vol. 41 Issue 4, p191
Distinguishing individual Russula species has been difficult due to extensive phenotypic plasticity and obscure morphological and anatomical discontinuities. Due to highly similar macroscopic features, such as the presence of a red-cap, species identification within the Russula subgenus Amoenula...
- Phenotypic plasticity rather than locally adapted ecotypes allows the invasive alligator weed to colonize a wide range of habitats.
Yu-Peng Geng; Xiao-Yun Pan; Cheng-Yuan Xu; Wen-Ju Zhang; Bo Li; Jia-Kuan Chen; Bao-Rong Lu; Zhi-Ping Song // Biological Invasions; Apr2007, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p245
AbstractÂ Â Both phenotypic plasticity and locally adapted ecotypes may contribute to the success of invasive species in a wide range of habitats. Here, we conducted common garden experiments and molecular marker analysis to test the two alternative hypotheses in invasive alligator weed...
- Where are larvae of the vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum on the continuum of larval nutritional strategies?
Phillips, Nicole E. // Marine Biology; Oct2011, Vol. 158 Issue 10, p2335
This study evaluated whether larvae of the Indo-Pacific vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum are obligate planktotrophs, or whether they exhibit an intermediate feeding strategy. Experiments were conducted in Moorea, French Polynesia (149Â°50â€²W, 17Â°30â€²S), Sep-Oct 2009, to...
- Karyological and morphometric variation of the North African green frog Pelophylax saharicus (Anura) in northeastern Africa.
Amor, Nabil; Farjallah, Sarra; Ben-Yacoub, Slim; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled // Current Zoology; 2010, Vol. 56 Issue 6, p678
Morphometric variation of Pelophylax saharicus was analysed using univariate and multivariate statistics, with both traditional and geometric morphometrics, based on 148 specimens from four different geographical localities in Tunisia and Algeria. The results show the existence of three...
- Phenotypic plasticity of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae) in wild populations of mountain forests in Colombia.
Ligarreto, Gustavo A.; Patiño, Maria del Pilar; Magnitskiy, Stanislav V. // Revista de BiologÃa Tropical; jun2011, Vol. 59 Issue 2, p569
Vaccinium meridionale is a promising crop for the Andean region of South America and is currently available only in the wild. Spontaneous populations of this plant are found across the Colombian mountains, but very few published records on this plant morphology are available. A zonification...
- Adaptive Transgenerational Plasticity in an Annual Plant: Grandparental and Parental Drought Stress Enhance Performance of Seedlings in Dry Soil.
Herman, Jacob J.; Sultan, Sonia E.; Horgan-Kobelski, Tim; Riggs, Charlotte // Integrative & Comparative Biology; Jul2012, Vol. 52 Issue 1, p77
Stressful parental (usually maternal) environments can dramatically influence expression of traits in offspring, in some cases resulting in phenotypes that are adaptive to the inducing stress. The ecological and evolutionary impact of such transgenerational plasticity depends on both its...
- Taxonomy and species boundaries in the coral genus Favia Milne Edwards and Haime, 1857 (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) from Thailand revealed by morphological and genetic data.
Kongjandtre, N.; Ridgway, T.; Cook, L.; Huelsken, T.; Budd, A.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O. // Coral Reefs; Jun2012, Vol. 31 Issue 2, p581
While Faviidae is a widely and uniformly distributed coral family throughout the Indo-Pacific, the extensive phenotypic plasticity of colony surface and corallite features often confounds the use of macromorphological characters in species identification, and contributes to conflict between...
- Plasticity in photosynthesis and functional leaf traits of Meconopsis horridula var. racemosa in response to growth irradiance.
Shi-Bao Zhang; Lu-Xi Yin // Botanical Studies; Jul2012, Vol. 53 Issue 3, p335
Meconopsis horridula var. racemosa, a valuable horticultural and medicinal plant, grows in the high mountains of the Himalayas under a range of light intensities, from bright illumination on the screes to low light in the understory of shrubs. To understand how this species adapts to these...
- The trophic plasticity of genus phelipanche pomel (orobanchaceae) in bulgaria.
STOYANOV, Kiril; HRISTEVA, Tsveta // Journal of Central European Agriculture; Mar2013, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p203
New data about the natural parasitism of Phelipanche ramosa (L) Pomel, P. mutelii (Shultz) Pomel, P. oxyloba, P. arenaria and P. purpurea in Bulgaria are collected. The information for the hosts describes 46 new trophic systems with species from the families: Brassicaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae,...
- Imaging human connectomes at the macroscale.
Craddock, R Cameron; Jbabdi, Saad; Yan, Chao-Gan; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Castellanos, F Xavier; Di Martino, Adriana; Kelly, Clare; Heberlein, Keith; Colcombe, Stan; Milham, Michael P // Nature Methods; Jun2013, Vol. 10 Issue 6, p524
The article presents a study on functional interactions and images of human connectomes at macroscopic scales. It states that the main aim of connectomics is to catalog neurophenotypes and relate them to phenotypic profiles which can be carried out through data-driven approaches focused on the...
- Assessing triclosan-induced ecological and trans-generational effects in natural phytoplankton communities: a trait-based field method.
Pomati, Francesco; Nizzetto, Luca // Ecotoxicology; Jul2013, Vol. 22 Issue 5, p779
We exposed replicated phytoplankton communities confined in semi-permeable membrane-based mesocosms to 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 Î¼g L triclosan (TCS) and placed them back in their original environment to investigate the occurrence of trans-generational responses at individual, population and community...
- A study of wing morphology and fluctuating asymmetry in interspecific hybrids between Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae.
Valeria Carreira; Ignacio Soto; Juan Fanara; Esteban Hasson // Genetica; May2008, Vol. 133 Issue 1, p1
AbstractÂ Â In this work we investigate the effect of interspecific hybridization on wing morphology using geometric morphometrics in the cactophilic sibling species D. buzzatii and D. koepferae. Wing morphology in F1 hybrids exhibited an important degree of phenotypic plasticity and differs...
- Molecular Evolution of the Substrate Utilization Strategies and Putative Virulence Factors in Mosquito-Associated Spiroplasma Species.
Chang, Tean-Hsu; Lo, Wen-Sui; Ku, Chuan; Chen, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Horng // Genome Biology & Evolution; Mar2014, Vol. 6 Issue 3, p500
Comparative genomics provides a powerful tool to characterize the genetic differences among species that may be linked to their phenotypic variations. In the case of mosquito-associated Spiroplasma species, such approach is useful for the investigation of their differentiations in substrate...
- Are plasticity in functional traits and constancy in performance traits linked with invasiveness? An experimental test comparing invasive and naturalized plant species.
Ruprecht, Eszter; Fenesi, Annamária; Nijs, Ivan // Biological Invasions; Jul2014, Vol. 16 Issue 7, p1359
The role of phenotypic plasticity in plant invasions is among the most often discussed relationships in invasion ecology. However, despite the large number of studies on this topic, there is little consistency. Reconsideration of the role of plasticity by distinguishing two substantially...
- Phenotypic plasticity in a complex world: interactive effects of food and temperature on fitness components of a seed beetle.
Stillwell, R. Craig; Wallin, William G.; Hitchcock, Lisa J.; Fox, Charles W. // Oecologia; Jul2007, Vol. 153 Issue 2, p309
Most studies of phenotypic plasticity investigate the effects of an individual environmental factor on organism phenotypes. However, organisms exist in an ecologically complex world where multiple environmental factors can interact to affect growth, development and life histories. Here, using a...
- Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the Midas cichlid fish pharyngeal jaw and its relevance in adaptive radiation.
Muschick, Moritz; Barluenga, Marta; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p114
Background: Phenotypic evolution and its role in the diversification of organisms is a central topic in evolutionary biology. A neglected factor during the modern evolutionary synthesis, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, more recently attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists and is...
- Dramatic phenotypic plasticity within species of Siphomutabilus n. g. (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae) from Indo-Pacific caesionines (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).
Miller, Terrence; Cribb, Thomas // Systematic Parasitology; Oct2013, Vol. 86 Issue 2, p101
A survey of Indo-Pacific lutjanids of the subfamily Caesioninae revealed the presence of Siphodera gurukun Machida, 1910 and two new cryptogonimid taxa from off Heron and Lizard Islands on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia and Rasdhoo Atoll, Maldives. A combined...
- Thermographic evaluation of climatic conditions on lambs from different genetic groups.
do Prado Paim, Tiago; Borges, Bárbara; de Mello Tavares Lima, Paulo; Gomes, Edgard; Dallago, Bruno; Fadel, Rossala; Menezes, Adriana; Louvandini, Helder; Canozzi, Maria; Barcellos, Júlio; McManus, Concepta // International Journal of Biometeorology; Jan2013, Vol. 57 Issue 1, p59
In production systems the characterization of genetic resources in relation to their capacity to respond to environmental conditions is necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of infrared thermography for separation of animals from different genetic groups and determine...
- Short-term change in male sexually selected traits and female mate preference in the guppy Poecilia reticulata.
Kudo, Hiromi; Karino, Kenji // Ichthyological Research; Jan2012, Vol. 59 Issue 1, p1
Some recent theoretical studies predict the plasticity of female preferences for male sexual ornaments. However, only little empirical information is available regarding changes in female preferences within a short period in the wild. In this study, we examined the short-term change in the...
- Leaf-level plasticity of Salix gordejevii in fixed dunes compared with lowlands in Hunshandake Sandland, North China.
Hua Su; Yonggeng Li; Zhenjiang Lan; Hong Xu; Wei Liu; Bingxue Wang; Dilip Kumar Biswas; Gaoming Jiang // Journal of Plant Research; Nov2009, Vol. 122 Issue 6, p611
To cope with adverse environments, the majority of indigenous plants in arid regions possess adaptive plasticity after long-term evolution. Leaf-level morphology, anatomy, biochemical properties, diurnal water potential and gas exchange of Salix gordejevii distributed in fixed dunes and lowlands...
- Phenotypic Changes in Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian Introduced by Sperm-Mediated Transgenesis of Rearranged Homologous DNA Fragments.
Cao, Zheming; Ding, Weidong; Ren, Hongtao // Applied Biochemistry & Biotechnology; Oct2013, Vol. 171 Issue 1, p189
Common carp, specifically the Jian variety ( Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian), is an important Chinese and global aquatic stock for commercial foodstuff. Homologous recombination of carp gene sequences has been widely used in population genetics to broadly screen for beneficial phenotypical...
- Phenotypic Plasticity in Drosophila Pigmentation Caused by Temperature Sensitivity of a Chromatin Regulator Network.
Gibert, Jean-Michel; Peronnet, Frédérique; Schlötterer, Christian // PLoS Genetics; Feb2007, Vol. 4 Issue 2, p266
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce contrasting phenotypes in different environments. Although many examples have been described, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood. In particular, it is not clear how phenotypic plasticity is related to buffering, the...
- PARTICULARITY OF PLASTICITY CHARACTERISTICS OF FINE GLACIAL MATERIALS (NORTH CHICAGO AREA).
CONSTANTINESCU, JULIANA; CONSTANTINESCU, DAMIAN // GeoEcoMarina; 2011, Vol. 17, p59
The representation of plasticity characteristics on Casagrande plasticity chart of glacial material samples, from an investigated area north of Chicago, IL, USA, confirmed the known alignment along the T line (Boulton and Paul, 1976) for the category of glacial materials. The goal of the present...