Citations with the tag: EUKARYOTIC cells -- Research

Results 1 - 50

  • Eukaryotic Organisms in Extreme Acidic Environments, the Río Tinto Case.
    Aguilera, Angeles // Life (2075-1729); Sep2013, Vol. 3 Issue 3, p363 

    A major issue in microbial ecology is to identify the limits of life for growth and survival, and to understand the molecular mechanisms that define these limits. Thus, interest in the biodiversity and ecology of extreme environments has grown in recent years for several reasons. Some are basic...

  • Exocytosis: A sortilin for secretory granules.
    Schuldt, Alison // Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology; Dec2013, Vol. 14 Issue 12, p751 

    The article discusses research being done on condensed cargo of eukaryotic cells which references the study "Lysosomal sorting receptors are essential for secretory granule biogenesis in Tetrahymena," by J. S. Briguglio, S. Kumar and A. P. Turkewitz.

  • Yes, Size Matters But Not In The Way You Might Think.
    Schuldt, Alison // Electronic Ardell Wellness Report (E-AWR); 3/4/2010, Issue 524, p1 

    The article presents a study about telomeres, the essential functional elements of eukaryotic chromosomes conducted by the researchers of King's College in London, England. It highlights the contribution of regular exercise and attending high fitness programs to slow aging process and the...

  • AMERICAN MUSEUM'S YOUNGEST SCIENTIST.
    Schuldt, Alison // Ebony; Oct1969, Vol. 24 Issue 12, p86 

    The article reports on the investigations on one-celled animals done by a twelve year old scientist Jeffrey Hurtt and his investigations at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. According to the chairman of the museum's Department of Education Richard Casebeer, Jeffrey was a...

  • A Single, Recent Origin of the Accessory B Chromosome of the Grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.
    Muñoz-Pajares, A. Jesüs; Martínez-Rodríguez, Laura; Teruel, María; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Perfectti, Francisco // Genetics; Mar2011, Vol. 187 Issue 3, p853 

    B chromosomes are dispensable chromosomes found in >2000 eukaryotic species, usually behaving as genomic parasites. Most B chromosomes seem to be made up of the same kind of DNA sequences present in the A chromosomes. This sequence similarity makes it difficult to obtain specific molecular...

  • Surveillance pathways rescuing eukaryotic ribosomes lost in translation.
    Graille, Marc; Séraphin, Bertrand // Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology; Nov2012, Vol. 13 Issue 11, p727 

    Living cells require the continuous production of proteins by the ribosomes. Any problem enforcing these protein factories to stall during mRNA translation may then have deleterious cellular effects. To minimize these defects, eukaryotic cells have evolved dedicated surveillance pathways:...

  • Designing customized cell signalling circuits.
    Lim, Wendell A. // Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology; Jun2010, Vol. 11 Issue 6, p393 

    Living cells have evolved a broad array of complex signalling responses, which enables them to survive diverse environmental challenges and execute specific physiological functions. Our increasingly sophisticated understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cell signalling networks in eukaryotes...

  • A late origin of the extant eukaryotic diversity: divergence time estimates using rare genomic changes.
    Lim, Wendell A. // Biology Direct; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p26 

    The article offers information on the estimation of extant eukaryotic diversity. It mentions a study conducted by researchers using genome-wide analysis to determine divergence of the major lineages of eukaryotes with calibration intervals for living beings like insects, land plants and vertebrates.

  • Analysis of Rare Genomic Changes Does Not Support the Unikont–Bikont Phylogeny and Suggests Cyanobacterial Symbiosis as the Point of Primary Radiation of Eukaryotes.
    Rogozin, Igor B.; Basu, Malay Kumar; Csürós, Miklós; Koonin, Eugene V. // Genome Biology & Evolution; Jan2009, Vol. 2009, p99 

    The deep phylogeny of eukaryotes is an important but extremely difficult problem of evolutionary biology. Five eukaryotic supergroups are relatively well established but the relationship between these supergroups remains elusive, and their divergence seems to best fit a “Big Bang”...

  • A Universal Nonmonotonic Relationship between Gene Compactness and Expression Levels in Multicellular Eukaryotes.
    Carmel, Liran; Koonin, Eugene V. // Genome Biology & Evolution; Jan2009, Vol. 2009, p382 

    Analysis of gene architecture and expression levels of four organisms, Homo sapiens, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Arabidopsis thaliana, reveals a surprising, nonmonotonic, universal relationship between expression level and gene compactness. With increasing expression...

  • Drosophila katanin is a microtubule depolymerase that regulates cortical-microtubule plus-end interactions and cell migration.
    Zhang, Dong; Grode, Kyle D.; Stewman, Shannon F.; Diaz-Valencia, Juan Daniel; Liebling, Emily; Rath, Uttama; Riera, Tania; Currie, Joshua D.; Buster, Daniel W.; Asenjo, Ana B.; Sosa, Hernando J.; Ross, Jennifer L.; Ma, Ao; Rogers, Stephen L.; Sharp, David J. // Nature Cell Biology; Apr2011, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p361 

    Regulation of microtubule dynamics at the cell cortex is important for cell motility, morphogenesis and division. Here we show that the Drosophila katanin Dm-Kat60 functions to generate a dynamic cortical-microtubule interface in interphase cells. Dm-Kat60 concentrates at the cell cortex of S2...

  • Polyglutamine Toxicity Is Controlled by Prion Composition and Gene Dosage in Yeast.
    He Gong; Romanova, Nina V.; Allen, Kim D.; Chandramowlishwaran, Pavithra; Gokhale, Kavita; Newnam, Gary P.; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Sherman, Michael Y.; Chernoff, Yury O. // PLoS Genetics; Apr2012, Vol. 8 Issue 4, Special section p1 

    Polyglutamine expansion causes diseases in humans and other mammals. One example is Huntington's disease. Fragments of human huntingtin protein having an expanded polyglutamine stretch form aggregates and cause cytotoxicity in yeast cells bearing endogenous QN-rich proteins in the aggregated...

  • Protein's "Part-Time Job" Reveals New Facet of Signaling Pathway.
    Inman, Mason // PLoS Biology; Nov2010, Vol. 8 Issue 11, p1 

    The article presents a study which examines the crucial role played by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit f (eIF3f) in the Notch signaling pathway. The study shows that eIF3f related with Notch when it is in the cell membrane, channeling a single ubiquitin protein. The study...

  • Comparative Genomic Evidence for a Complete Nuclear Pore Complex in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor.
    Neumann, Nadja; Lundin, Daniel; Poole, Anthony M. // PLoS ONE; 2010, Vol. 5 Issue 10, p1 

    Background: The Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) facilitates molecular trafficking between nucleus and cytoplasm and is an integral feature of the eukaryote cell. It exhibits eight-fold rotational symmetry and is comprised of approximately 30 nucleoporins (Nups) in different stoichiometries. Nups are...

  • The Cyclophilin AtCYP71 Interacts with CAF-1 and LHP1 and Functions in Multiple Chromatin Remodeling Processes.
    Li, Hong; Luan, Sheng // Molecular Plant; Jul2011, Vol. 4 Issue 4, p748 

    Chromatin is the primary carrier of epigenetic information in higher eukaryotes. AtCYP71 contains both cyclophilin domain and WD40 repeats. Loss of AtCYP71 function causes drastic pleiotropic phenotypic defects. Here, we show that AtCYP71 physically interacts with FAS1 and LHP1, respectively, to...

  • Plant organellar calcium signalling: an emerging field.
    Stael, Simon; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Mair, Andrea; Mehlmer, Norbert; Vothknecht, Ute C.; Teige, Markus // Journal of Experimental Botany; Apr2012, Vol. 63 Issue 4, p1525 

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the established and emerging roles that organelles play in calcium signalling. The function of calcium as a secondary messenger in signal transduction networks is well documented in all eukaryotic organisms, but so far existing reviews have hardly...

  • Nuclear pore formation but not nuclear growth is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) during interphase.
    Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Iino, Haruki; Hihara, Saera; Funakoshi, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ai; Nishimura, Masaomi; Nakatomi, Reiko; Yahata, Kazuhide; Imamoto, Fumio; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Yokota, Hideo; Imamoto, Naoko // Nature Structural & Molecular Biology; Sep2010, Vol. 17 Issue 9, p1065 

    Nuclear volume and the number of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) on the nucleus almost double during interphase in dividing cells. How these events are coordinated with the cell cycle is poorly understood, particularly in mammalian cells. We report here, based on newly developed techniques for...

  • Ubiquitin pathway and ovarian cancer.
    Rao, Z.; Ding, Y. // Current Oncology; Dec2012, Vol. 19 Issue 6, p324 

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a common cellular process in eukaryotic tissue. Ubiquitin binds to proteins and tags them for destruction; this tagging directs proteins to the proteosome in the cell that degrades and recycles unneeded proteins. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an...

  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Is a Candidate Signaling Molecule in the Mitochondria-to-Nucleus Retrograde Response Pathway.
    Zhang, Feng; Pracheil, Tammy; Thornton, Janet; Liu, Zhengchang // Genes; Mar2013, Vol. 4 Issue 1, p86 

    Intracellular communication from the mitochondria to the nucleus is achieved via the retrograde response. In budding yeast, the retrograde response, also known as the RTG pathway, is regulated positively by Rtg1, Rtg2, Rtg3 and Grr1 and negatively by Mks1, Lst8 and two 14-3-3 proteins, Bmh1/2....

  • Discovering non-random segregation of sister chromatids: the naïve treatment of a premature discovery.
    Lark, Karl G.; Rando, Thomas; Hubbard, Karen; Quesenberry, Peter J. // Frontiers in Oncology; Feb2013, Vol. 3, Special section p1 

    The discovery of non-random chromosome segregation (Figure 1) is discussed from the perspective of what was known in 1965 and 1966. The distinction between daughter, parent, or grandparent strands of DNA was developed in a bacterial system and led to the discovery that multiple copies of DNA...

  • HOW p-BENZOQUINONE INHIBITS GROWTH OF VARIOUS FRESHWATER PHOTOTROPHS: DIFFERENT SUSCEPTIBILITY AND MODES OF ACTIONS?
    Bährs, Hanno; Heinze, Tobias; Gilbert, Matthias; Wilhelm, Christian; Steinberg, Christian E. W. // Annals of Environmental Science; 2013, Vol. 7, p1 

    Interactions of polyphenols with freshwater phototrophs have been the focus of many studies, since polyphenols of various classes and their oxidation products (quinones) belong to natural organic matter in any freshwater body. Most of these studies lack information regarding the possible...

  • Periodicities designed in the tropomyosin sequence and structure define its functions.
    Barua, Bipasha // BioArchitecture; May/Jun2013, Vol. 3 Issue 3, p51 

    Tropomyosin is an actin binding protein that regulates actin filament dynamics and its interactions with actin binding proteins such as myosin, tropomodulin, formin, Arp2/3 and ADF-cofilin in most eukaryotic cells. Tropomyosin is the prototypical two-chained, α-helical coiled coil protein...

  • The great repression.
    Hennig, Bianca P.; Fischer, Tamás // Transcription (2154-1264);  

    The eukaryotic chromatin structure is essential in correctly defining transcription units. Impairing this structure can activate cryptic promoters, and lead to the accumulation of aberrant RNA transcripts. Here we discuss critical pathways that are responsible for the repression of cryptic...

  • Mechanism of Chromosomal Boundary Action: Roadblock, Sink, or Loop?
    Gohl, Daryl; Aoki, Tsutomu; Blanton, Jason; Shanower, Greg; Kappes, Gretchen; Schedl, Paul // Genetics; Mar2011, Vol. 187 Issue 3, p731 

    Boundary elements or insulators subdivide eukaryotic chromosomes into a series of structurally and functionally autonomous domains. They ensure that the action of enhancers and silencers is restricted to the domain in which these regulatory elements reside. Three models, the roadblock,...

  • Constant Splice-Isoform Ratios in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Support the Concept of a Splico-Stat.
    Kramer, Marcel; Huse, Klaus; Menzel, Uwe; Backhaus, Oliver; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan; Hampe, Jochen; Platzer, Matthias // Genetics; Mar2011, Vol. 187 Issue 3, p761 

    Splicing generates mature transcripts from genes in pieces in eukaryotic cells. Overwhelming evidence has accumulated that alternative routes in splicing are possible for most human and mammalian genes, thereby allowing formation of different transcripts from one gene. No function has been...

  • Processing Body and Stress Granule Assembly Occur by Independent and Differentially Regulated Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
    Shah, Khyati H.; Zhang, Bo; Ramachandran, Vidhya; Herman, Paul K. // Genetics; Jan2013, Vol. 193 Issue 1, p109 

    A variety of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules form in eukaryotic cells to regulate the translation, decay, and localization of the encapsulated messenger RNA (mRNAs). The work here examined the assembly and function of two highly conserved RNP structures, the processing body (P body) and the...

  • Extensive Divergence Between Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Anther-Smut Fungus.
    Hood, Michael E.; Petit, Elsa; Giraud, Tatiana // Genetics; Jan2013, Vol. 193 Issue 1, p309 

    Genomic regions that determine mating compatibility are subject to distinct evolutionary forces that can lead to a cessation of meiotic recombination and the accumulation of structural changes between members of the homologous chromosome pair. The relatively recent discovery of dimorphic...

  • Generation of Tandem Direct Duplications by Reversed-Ends Transposition of Maize Ac Elements.
    Zhang, Jianbo; Zuo, Tao; Peterson, Thomas // PLoS Genetics; Aug2013, Vol. 9 Issue 8, p1 

    Tandem direct duplications are a common feature of the genomes of eukaryotes ranging from yeast to human, where they comprise a significant fraction of copy number variations. The prevailing model for the formation of tandem direct duplications is non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR)....

  • Reversible and Rapid Transfer-RNA Deactivation as a Mechanism of Translational Repression in Stress.
    Czech, Andreas; Wende, Sandra; Mörl, Mario; Pan, Tao; Ignatova, Zoya // PLoS Genetics; Aug2013, Vol. 9 Issue 8, p1 

    Stress-induced changes of gene expression are crucial for survival of eukaryotic cells. Regulation at the level of translation provides the necessary plasticity for immediate changes of cellular activities and protein levels. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure to oxidative stress...

  • Genome Wide Association Identifies Novel Loci Involved in Fungal Communication.
    Palma-Guerrero, Javier; Hall, Charles R.; Kowbel, David; Welch, Juliet; Taylor, John W.; Brem, Rachel B.; Glass, N. Louise // PLoS Genetics; Aug2013, Vol. 9 Issue 8, p1 

    Understanding how genomes encode complex cellular and organismal behaviors has become the outstanding challenge of modern genetics. Unlike classical screening methods, analysis of genetic variation that occurs naturally in wild populations can enable rapid, genome-scale mapping of genotype to...

  • Distinct SUMO Ligases Cooperate with Esc2 and Slx5 to Suppress Duplication-Mediated Genome Rearrangements.
    Albuquerque, Claudio P.; Wang, Guoliang; Lee, Nancy S.; Kolodner, Richard D.; Putnam, Christopher D.; Zhou, Huilin // PLoS Genetics; Aug2013, Vol. 9 Issue 8, p1 

    Suppression of duplication-mediated gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs) is essential to maintain genome integrity in eukaryotes. Here we report that SUMO ligase Mms21 has a strong role in suppressing GCRs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while Siz1 and Siz2 have weaker and partially redundant...

  • Regulation of Sister Chromosome Cohesion by the Replication Fork Tracking Protein SeqA.
    Joshi, Mohan C.; Magnan, David; Montminy, Timothy P.; Lies, Mark; Stepankiw, Nicholas; Bates, David // PLoS Genetics; Aug2013, Vol. 9 Issue 8, p1 

    Analogously to chromosome cohesion in eukaryotes, newly replicated DNA in E. coli is held together by inter-sister linkages before partitioning into daughter nucleoids. In both cases, initial joining is apparently mediated by DNA catenation, in which replication-induced positive supercoils...

  • The Genome of Spraguea lophii and the Basis of Host-Microsporidian Interactions.
    Campbell, Scott E.; Williams, Tom A.; Yousuf, Asim; Soanes, Darren M.; Paszkiewicz, Konrad H.; Williams, Bryony A. P. // PLoS Genetics; Aug2013, Vol. 9 Issue 8, p1 

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites with the smallest known eukaryotic genomes. Although they are increasingly recognized as economically and medically important parasites, the molecular basis of microsporidian pathogenicity is almost completely unknown and no genetic manipulation...

  • Role of Heat Shock Proteins in the initiation, elaboration and therapy of infectious diseases.
    Gilea, Beatrice; Lazar, Veronica // Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry; 2013, Vol. 3 Issue 5, p636 

    The prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells respond to different types of lethal assaults by the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSP), in order to protect themselves. HSPs are also synthesized constitutively and exhibit important housekeeping functions essential for cellular survival, by their...

  • Proving Lipid Rafts Exist: Membrane Domains in the Prokaryote Borrelia burgdorferi Have the Same Properties as Eukaryotic Lipid Rafts
    LaRocca, Timothy J.; Pathak, Priyadarshini; Chiantia, Salvatore; Toledo, Alvaro; Silvius, John R.; Benach, Jorge L.; London, Erwin // PLoS Pathogens; May2013, Vol. 9 Issue 5, p1 

    Lipid rafts in eukaryotic cells are sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich, ordered membrane regions that have been postulated to play roles in many membrane functions, including infection. We previously demonstrated the existence of cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in membranes of the prokaryote, B....

  • Insights into Chromatin Structure and Dynamics in Plants.
    Rosa, Stefanie; Shaw, Peter // Biology (2079-7737); Dec2013, Vol. 2 Issue 4, p1378 

    The packaging of chromatin into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell requires an extraordinary degree of compaction and physical organization. In recent years, it has been shown that this organization is dynamically orchestrated to regulate responses to exogenous stimuli as well as to guide complex...

  • Structural Disorder Provides Increased Adaptability for Vesicle Trafficking Pathways.
    Pietrosemoli, Natalia; Pancsa, Rita; Tompa, Peter // PLoS Computational Biology; Jul2013, Vol. 9 Issue 7, p1 

    Vesicle trafficking systems play essential roles in the communication between the organelles of eukaryotic cells and also between cells and their environment. Endocytosis and the late secretory route are mediated by clathrin-coated vesicles, while the COat Protein I and II (COPI and COPII)...

  • Growth control of the eukaryote cell: a systems biology study in yeast.
    Castrillo, Juan I.; Zeef, Leo A.; Hoyle, David C.; Zhang, Nianshu; Hayes, Andrew; Gardner, David C. J.; Cornell, Michael J.; Petty, June; Hakes, Luke; Wardleworth, Leanne; Rash, Bharat; Brown, Marie; Dunn, Warwick B.; Broadhurst, David; O'Donoghue, Kerry; Hester, Svenja S.; Dunkley, Tom P. J.; Hart, Sarah R.; Swainston, Neil; Li, Peter // Journal of Biology; 2007, Vol. 6, p4.1 

    Background: Cell growth underlies many key cellular and developmental processes, yet a limited number of studies have been carried out on cell-growth regulation. Comprehensive studies at the transcriptional, proteomic and metabolic levels under defined controlled conditions are currently...

  • Dynamic rerouting of the carbohydrate flux is key to counteracting oxidative stress.
    Ralser, Markus; Wamelink, Mirjam M.; Kowald, Axel; Birgit Gerisch; Heeren, Gino; Struys, Eduard A.; Klipp, Edda; Jakobs, Cornelis; Breitenbach, Michael; Lehrach, Hans; Krobitsch, Sylvia // Journal of Biology; 2007, Vol. 6, p10.1 

    Background: Eukaryotic cells have evolved various response mechanisms to counteract the deleterious consequences of oxidative stress. Among these processes, metabolic alterations seem to play an important role. Results: We recently discovered that yeast cells with reduced activity of the key...

  • Pleiotropic Effects of a Mitochondrial-Nuclear Incompatibility Depend upon the Accelerating Effect of Temperature in Drosophila.
    Hoekstra, Luke A.; Siddiq, Mohammad A.; Montooth, Kristi L. // Genetics; Nov2013, Vol. 195 Issue 3, p1129 

    Interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear gene products that underlie eukaryotic energy metabolism can cause the fitness effects of mutations in one genome to be conditional on variation in the other genome. In ectotherms, the effects of these interactions are likely to depend upon the...

  • The Genome of the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Trachipleistophora hominis: New Insights into Microsporidian Genome Dynamics and Reductive Evolution.
    Heinz, Eva; Williams, Tom A.; Nakjang, Sirintra; Noël, Christophe J.; Swan, Daniel C.; Goldberg, Alina V.; Harris, Simon R.; Weinmaier, Thomas; Markert, Stephanie; Becher, Dörte; Bernhardt, Jörg; Dagan, Tal; Hacker, Christian; Lucocq, John M.; Schweder, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Hall, Neil; Hirt, Robert P.; Embley, T. Martin // PLoS Pathogens; Oct2012, Vol. 8 Issue 10, Special section p1 

    The dynamics of reductive genome evolution for eukaryotes living inside other eukaryotic cells are poorly understood compared to well-studied model systems involving obligate intracellular bacteria. Here we present 8.5 Mb of sequence from the genome of the microsporidian Trachipleistophora...

  • Nuclear RNAi Contributes to the Silencing of Off-Target Genes and Repetitive Sequences in Caenorhabditis elegans.
    Xufei Zhou; Fei Xu; Hui Mao; Jiaojiao Ji; Meng Yin; Xuezhu Feng; Shouhong Guang // Genetics; May2014, Vol. 197 Issue 1, p121 

    Small RNAs recognize, bind, and regulate other complementary cellular RNAs. The introduction of small RNAs to eukaryotic cells frequently results in unintended silencing of related, but not identical, RNAs: a process termed off-target gene silencing. Off-target gene silencing is one of the major...

  • Towards a Structural Comprehension of Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems: Characterization of the TssJ-TssM Complex of an Escherichia coli Pathovar.
    Felisberto-Rodrigues, Catarina; Durand, Eric; Aschtgen, Marie-Stéphanie; Blangy, Stéphanie; Ortiz-Lombardia, Miguel; Douzi, Badreddine; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric // PLoS Pathogens; Nov2011, Vol. 7 Issue 11, Special section p1 

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are trans-envelope machines dedicated to the secretion of virulence factors into eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, therefore required for pathogenesis and/or for competition towards neighboring bacteria. The T6SS apparatus resembles the injection device of...

  • Multiple Candidate Effectors from the Oomycete Pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Suppress Host Plant Immunity.
    Fabro, Georgina; Steinbrenner, Jens; Coates, Mary; Ishaque, Naveed; Baxter, Laura; Studholme, David J.; Körner, Evelyn; Allen, Rebecca L.; Piquerez, Sophie J. M.; Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Greenshields, David; Lei, Rita; Badel, Jorge L.; Caillaud, Marie-Cecile; Sohn, Kee-Hoon; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Parker, Jane E.; Beynon, Jim; Jones, Jonathan D. G. // PLoS Pathogens; Nov2011, Vol. 7 Issue 11, Special section p1 

    Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy...

  • How do trypanosomes change gene expression in response to the environment?
    Schwede, Angela; Kramer, Susanne; Carrington, Mark // Protoplasma; Apr2012, Vol. 249 Issue 2, p223 

    All organisms are able to modulate gene expression in response to internal and external stimuli. Trypanosomes represent a group that diverged early during the radiation of eukaryotes and do not utilise regulated initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II. Here, the mechanisms present in...

  • Regulatory Mechanisms That Prevent Re-initiation of DNA Replication Can Be Locally Modulated at Origins by Nearby Sequence Elements.
    Richardson, Christopher D.; Li, Joachim J. // PLoS Genetics; Jun2014, Vol. 10 Issue 6, p1 

    Eukaryotic cells must inhibit re-initiation of DNA replication at each of the thousands of origins in their genome because re-initiation can generate genomic alterations with extraordinary frequency. To minimize the probability of re-initiation from so many origins, cells use a battery of...

  • DNA topology and transcription.
    Kouzine, Fedor; Levens, David; Baranello, Laura // Nucleus (1949-1034); May/Jun2014, Vol. 5 Issue 3, p1 

    The article presents evidence-based approaches to understanding the role of DNA topology in genetic transcriptional regulations and eukaryotic cell dynamics. Topics discussed include topological domains of DNA during cellular processes, the disruption of a repressive chromatin and initiation by...

  • RNA Polymerase II transcription elongation and Pol II CTD Ser2 phosphorylation.
    Bowman, Elizabeth A.; Kelly, William G. // Nucleus (1949-1034); May/Jun2014, Vol. 5 Issue 3, p1 

    The transition between initiation and productive elongation during rNa Polymerase II (Pol II) transcription is a well-appreciated point of regulation across many eukaryotes. elongating Pol II is modified by phosphorylation of serine 2 (Ser2) on its carboxy terminal domain (CTD) by two kinases,...

  • Selective autophagy of non-ubiquitylated targets in plants: looking for cognate receptor/adaptor proteins.
    Veljanovski, Vasko; Batoko, Henri // Frontiers in Plant Science; Jun2014, Vol. 5, p1 

    Cellular homeostasis is essential for the physiology of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells, including plant cells, utilize two main pathways to adjust the level of cytoplasmic components, namely the proteasomal and the lysosomal/vacuolar pathways. Macroautophagy is a lysosomal/vacuolar pathway...

  • Fission Yeast Cells Undergo Nuclear Division in the Absence of Spindle Microtubules.
    Castagnetti, Stefania; Oliferenko, Snezhana; Nurse, Paul // PLoS Biology; Oct2010, Vol. 8 Issue 10, p1 

    Mitosis in eukaryotic cells employs spindle microtubules to drive accurate chromosome segregation at cell division. Cells lacking spindle microtubules arrest in mitosis due to a spindle checkpoint that delays mitotic progression until all chromosomes have achieved stable bipolar attachment to...

Next 50 Results
Share

Other Topics