Citations with the tag: ESTUARINE ecology

Results 1 - 50

  • The Role of Nutrient Loading and Eutrophication in Estuarine Ecology.
    Pinckney, James L.; Paerl, Hans W.; Tester, Patricia; Richardson, Tammi L. // Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements; Oct2001 Supplement 5, Vol. 109, p699 

    Examines the role of nutrient loading and eutrophication in estuarine ecology in the United States. Definition of eutrophication; Causes of eutrophication; Consequences of eutrophication.

  • Distribution and Ecology of Foraminifera Studies Between Mandapam and Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India.
    Gandhi, M. Suresh; Solai, A. // IUP Journal of Earth Sciences; Jul2011, Vol. 5 Issue 3, p20 

    The present study area extends to 150 km from Mandapam to Tuticorin, Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu. Before the commencement of sample collection, a base map in the scale 1: 50,000 was prepared using the toposheet nos. 58L/13, 58L/1 and 58M/16. The fieldwork was done during the month of March, 2006....

  • preface.
    Gandhi, M. Suresh; Solai, A. // Journal of Coastal Research; Mar2009 Supplement, Issue S1, following p125 

    The article presents information on the issues discussed in the journal along with the people who have contributed towards the publishing of the current issue. The purpose of the current issue is reportedly to review the existing knowledge for several aspects of the York River ecosystem, Maine...

  • Seasonal Distributions and Movements of Longnose Gar (Lepisosteus osseus) within the York River System, Virginia.
    McGrath, Patrick E.; Hilton, Eric J.; Musick, John A. // Southeastern Naturalist; 2012, Vol. 11 Issue 3, p375 

    The seasonal movements of Lepisosteus osseus (Longnose Gar) are largely unknown. The goal of this project was to characterize spawning movements and seasonal distributions by using acoustic tagging methods and examining historical catch records from a trawl survey. This is the first time that...

    Mikell, Gregory A.; Saunders, Rebecca // Southeastern Archaeology; Winter2007, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p169 

    Investigations of 16 sites on the Pamlico Terrace above the cypress swamp north of Choctawhatchee Bay have yielded important data on early estuarine exploitation in the terminal Middle and Late Archaic (7300-3200 2 cal. B.P.). While these sites are located above a cypress swamp over 2 km...

  • Assessing Reference Conditions According to the European Water Framework Directive Using Modelling and Analysis of Historical Data: An Example from Randers Fjord, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Kurt; Somod, Bent; Ellegaard, Christina; Krause-Jensen, Dorte // AMBIO - A Journal of the Human Environment; Jun2003, Vol. 32 Issue 4, p287 

    Assesses reference conditions according to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Aims of the WFD; Macrophyte parameter most relevant to the implementation of the WFD; Kind of models that are useful tools for estimating the effects of reduced nutrient loading to Danish estuaries.

  • Tidal vertical migration of two estuarine copepods: naupliar migration and position-dependent migration.
    UEDA, HIROSHI; KUWATANI, MEGUMI; SUZUKI, KEITA W. // Journal of Plankton Research; Nov2010, Vol. 32 Issue 11, p1557 

    Tidal vertical migration (TVM) of the calanoid copepods Pseudodiaptomus inopinus and Sinocalanus sinensis was investigated three times in August 2003 and March and August 2004 in the Chikugo River estuary, Japan, from the viewpoints of life history and position within the estuary. On each...

    HARGRAVES, PAUL E.; HANISAK, M. DENNIS // Florida Scientist; Summer2011, Vol. 74 Issue 3, p151 

    Estuarine trophic transfer depends on many biological, chemical, and hydrodynamic factors, among which are size, biodiversity and ecology of the resident populations. In the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, USA, a biogeographically transitional area between temperate and tropical zones, we...

  • Occurrence of the non-native sleeper Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker, 1849) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) in the Amazon coastal zone, Brazil.
    Soares, Bruno Eleres; Begot Ruffeil, Tiago Octavio; de Assis Montag, Luciano Foga�a // BioInvasions Record; 2012, Vol. 1 Issue 2, p95 

    The eleotrid Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker, 1849) is native to estuarine waters of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, between China and Madagascar. This species has now been recorded at two sites on the Brazilian coastline (Espir�to Santo and Par� state) but so far there have been no published...

    PANDYA, P. J.; VACHHRAJANI, K. D. // Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences; 2012, Vol. 5, p41 

    There is a lack of basic information about the malacological fauna of the estuaries of Gujarat, India, although Gulf of Khambhat is supplied by major rivers like Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada and Tapi. About 50 km long Mahi River estuary was divided into 3 zones viz., upstream (site Fajalpur),...

  • Mollusks from two estuarine areas in Ceará State, northeastern Brazil, with new state records for four species.
    Barroso, Cristiane Xerez; Rabay, Soraya Guimarães; de Meirelles, Carlos Augusto Oliveira; Matthews-Cascon, Helena // CheckList; 2013, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p504 

    We analyzed qualitatively the malacofauna found in the tidal zones of Banco dos Cajuais and Ilha Grande estuarine complex, both in Ceará State, northeastern Brazil. Qualitative data on the malacofauna from Banco dos Cajuais and the Ilha Grande estuarine complex were obtained by systematic...

  • Erratum: Seasonal Occurrence of Cownose Rays ( Rhinoptera bonasus) in North Carolina's Estuarine and Coastal Waters.
    Goodman, M.; Conn, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Eric // Estuaries & Coasts; May2011, Vol. 34 Issue 3, p652 

    No abstract available.

  • Editorial.
    Dyke, P. P. G. // Ocean Dynamics; May2004, Vol. 54 Issue 2, p107 

    Deals with the 11th Biennial JONSMOD workshop, which provides an opportunity for researchers in shallow sea and estuarine modelling to meet and work together, at the University of Li�ge in Belgium in July 2002.

  • Simulating the temporal and spatial dynamics of the North Sea using the new model GETM (general estuarine transport model).
    Stips, Adolf; Bolding, Karsten; Pohlmann, Thomas; Burchard, Hans // Ocean Dynamics; May2004, Vol. 54 Issue 2, p266 

    Here we present results of a 1-year realistic North Sea simulation from the new model GETM (general estuarine transport model) and assess the capabilities of this model by comparing them to model results from the well-known HAMSOM (Hamburg shelf sea and ocean model) model, in situ data from the...

  • Variability in Chlorophyll and Phytoplankton Composition in an Estuarine System.
    Gameiro, C.; Cartaxana, P.; Cabrita, M. T.; Brotas, V. // Hydrobiologia; Sep2004, Vol. 525 Issue 1-3, p113 

    The spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton abundance (in terms of chlorophyll a and cell number), inorganic nitrogen, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and light availability was determined throughout one year in the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Chlorophyll a concentrations showed a...

    Fortes Carvalho-Neta, Raimunda Nonata; Abreu-Silva, Ana L�cia // Brazilian Journal of Oceanography; Oct2010 Special Issue, Vol. 58, p11 

    In order to study the effects of environmental contamination on wild fish, sites were sampled in S�o Marcos' Bay. The first is located near the ALUMAR/ALCOA port, a potentially contaminated area. The second, located near the Coqueiro beach, was used as a reference area. The activity of...

  • Comparative Analysis of Reproductive Traits in Black-Chinned Tilapia Females from Various Coastal Marine, Estuarine and Freshwater Ecosystems.
    Gu�ye, Moussa; Tine, Mbaye; Kantoussan, Justin; Ndiaye, Papa; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Albaret, Jean-Jacques // PLoS ONE; Jan2012, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p1 

    The black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron is a marine teleost characterised by an extreme euryhalinity. However, beyond a certain threshold at very high salinity, the species exhibits impaired growth and precocious reproduction. In this study, the relationships between reproductive...

  • Causes of Interestuarine Variability in Bay Anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) Salinity at Capture.
    Peebles, Ernst B.; Burghart, Scott E.; Hollander, David J. // Estuaries & Coasts; Dec2007, Vol. 30 Issue 6, p1060 

    Salinities occupied by different life stages of bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) were compared over annual cycles at 128 stations in 12 Florida estuaries. The comparison included eight stations in an oligotrophic, groundwater-based estuary in which all life stages were rare or absent. At other...

    Magris, Rafael A.; Pereira, Juliano B.; Fernandes, Luiz F. Loureiro // Journal of Crustacean Biology; 2011, Vol. 31 Issue 2, p260 

    We studied copepod assemblage variability among years, seasons, and tidal states in the Mucuri River estuary (Bahia State, Brazil). Zooplankton samples were collected seasonally through five years (2002-2006) at three sampling stations, one of which was sampled over a complete tidal cycle (two...

  • Hydrological Alterations and Marine Biogeochemistry: A Silicate Issue?
    Ittekkot, Venugopalan; Humborg, Christoph; Schafer, Petra // BioScience; Sep2000, Vol. 50 Issue 9, p776 

    Reports on the effect of Silicate on the growth of algal and species composition resulting from hydrological alterations. Discussion of the silicon and carbon link which has impacted the ecosystem structure in coastal areas; Details of hydrological alterations which have increased river inputs;...

  • Lista de los peces del delta del r�o Orinoco, Venezuela.
    Lasso, Carlos A.; S�nchez-Duarte, Paula; Lasso-Alcal�, Oscar M.; Mart�n, Ricardo; Samudio, H�ctor; Gonz�lez-Oropeza, Katiusca; Hern�ndez-Acevedo, Jaime; Mesa, Lina // Biota Colombiana; jun2009, Vol. 10 Issue 1/2, p123 

    The list of freshwater, estuarine and marine fishes known from the Orinoco River delta in Venezuela is updated, corrected and expanded. Based on recent field work, revision of the literature and museum collections, a list of 438 species was assembled that includes nine new records for the...

  • Assessing the Response of Estuarine Intertidal Assemblages to Urbanised Catchment Discharge.
    Courtenay, Glenn Christopher; Gladstone, William; Schreider, Maria // Environmental Monitoring & Assessment; Aug2005, Vol. 107 Issue 1-3, p375 

    Measurement of intertidal rock assemblages was investigated as a potential biological indicator to provide a quantitative estimate of the impact of urbanised catchment discharge on the estuaries of Sydney, Australia, from 1995 to 1999. Based on the presence and characteristics of adjacent human...

  • Water quality and phytoplankton proliferations in the lower Nakdong River (South Korea) with respect to hydrological control.
    Jeong, Kwang-Seuk; Hong, Dong-Gyun // Annual International Conference on Sustainable Energy & Environm; 2013, p180 

    The lower Nakdong River system is one of regulated river system, whose flow is extensively controlled by upriver dams and an estuarine barrage. Since the completion of the estuarine barrage construction, the river experienced summer cyanobacterial and winter diatom proliferations frequently. A...

  • On Mellitella stokesii and Amphipholis geminata (Echinodermata), from an intertidal flat in the upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific, Costa Rica.
    Vargas, José A.; Solano, Sylvia // Revista de Biología Tropical; mar2011, Vol. 59 Issue 1, p193 

    Information on changes over time in the biodiversity and ecology of tropical systems is of increasing importance against the background of local, regional, and global dynamics. This study aimed to contribute with long-term data on the abundance fluctuations of two species of echinoderms from a...

  • Macrobenthic biodiversity and oxygen uptake in estuarine systems: the example of the Seine estuary.
    Janson, Anne-Laure; Denis, Lionel; Rauch, Mathieu; Desroy, Nicolas // Journal of Soils & Sediments: Protection, Risk Assessment, & Rem; Dec2012, Vol. 12 Issue 10, p1568 

    Purpose: Bioturbation is a major process influencing the functioning of benthic ecosystems. Although controlled experiments with species in monoculture or in artificial combinations have increased the knowledge about the role of biological diversity on geochemical processes, specific...

  • Flocculation Potential of Estuarine Particles: The Importance of Environmental Factors and of the Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Suspended Particulate Matter.
    Verney, Romaric; Lafite, Robert; Brun-Cottan, Jean-Claude // Estuaries & Coasts; Jul2009, Vol. 32 Issue 4, p678 

    Estuarine systems are complex environments where seasonal and spatial variations occur in concentrations of suspended particulate matter, in primary constituents, and in organic matter content. This study investigated in the laboratory the flocculation potential of estuarine-suspended...

  • Tidal movements of female leopard sharks ( Triakis semifasciata) in Elkhorn Slough, California.
    Carlisle, Aaron B.; Starr, Richard M. // Environmental Biology of Fishes; Sep2010, Vol. 89 Issue 1, p31 

    The leopard shark ( Triakis semifasciata) is one of the most common species of elasmobranch in California, and uses the shallow bays and estuaries of California extensively throughout its life history. To examine the role that tides and time of day play on the distribution and movements of...

  • Phytoplankton pigment patterns in a temperate estuary: from unialgal cultures to natural assemblages.
    Aitor Laza-Martinez; Sergio Seoane; Manuel Zapata; Emma Orive // Journal of Plankton Research; Nov2007, Vol. 29 Issue 11, p913 

    Pigment analysis complemented with microscopic observations of live and preserved cells was used to gain insight into the composition of estuarine phytoplankton. Biological material, obtained from the Nervion River estuary, consisted of 37 species belonging to 15 phytoplankton classes and 10...

  • Relationship between eutrophication reference conditions and boundary settings considering OSPAR recommendations and the Water Framework Directive—examples from the German Bight.
    Topcu, Dilek; Brockmann, Uwe; Claussen, Ulrich // Hydrobiologia; Jul2009, Vol. 629 Issue 1, p91 

    In order to allow for natural variability, the original OSPAR assessment procedure for eutrophication (Comprehensive Procedure) sets the threshold between Non-Problem/Problem Area (elevated levels) at 50% above natural background concentrations, which is equivalent to the boundary setting...

  • Benthos of the York River.
    Gillett, David J.; Schaffner, Linda C. // Journal of Coastal Research; Mar2009 Supplement, Issue S1, p80 

    Benthic organisms and their communities are key components of estuarine systems. We provide an overview of the biology and key ecological features of benthic communities of York river estuary (Yre), which is the site of the Chesapeake Bay national estuarine research reserve in Virginia...

    Ávila, Enrique; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael // Brazilian Journal of Oceanography; Oct-Dec2011, Vol. 59 Issue 4, p365 

    The aim of the present study was to describe the structure of shallow-water rhodolith beds from Bahia Magdalena, one of the most productive estuarine systems of the Mexican Pacific coasts. From September 2008 to May 2009 four rhodolith beds were found (between 1 and 3 m depth) and population...

  • Comparison of growth and condition indices of juvenile flatfish in differentcoastal nursery grounds.
    Gilliers, Camille; Amara, Rachid; Bergeron, Jean-Pierre; Pape, Olivier Le // Environmental Biology of Fishes; Oct2004, Vol. 71 Issue 2, p189 

    Coastal and estuarine ecosystems in the eastern channel and southern bight of the North Sea provide nursery habitats for juvenile fishes. We examined the age 0-group juveniles of three flatfish speciesSolea solea, Limanda limanda and Pleuronectes platessa, collected in five nursery areas with...

  • Sedimentological and Rheological Properties of the Water--Solid Bed Interface in the Weser and Ems Estuaries, North Sea, Germany: Implications for Fluid Mud Classification.
    Papenmeier, Svenja; Schrottke, Kerstin; Bartholomä, Alexander; Flemming, Burghard W. // Journal of Coastal Research; Jul2013, Vol. 29 Issue 4, p797 

    Fine, cohesive sediment suspensions are a common feature of estuarine environments. Generally, multilayer models are used to describe the vertical distribution of such sediments. Such conceptional models normally distinguish at least high suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) as a topmost...

  • Análise das lógicas de ação de atores sociais em torno do licenciamento ambiental de um terminal portuário no estuário de Santos (Brasil).
    Stori, Fernanda Terra; de Souza Abessa, Denis Moledo; Nordi, Nivaldo // RGCI - Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada; 2013, Vol. 13 Issue 3, p365 

    The increasing of industrial and port activities in the estuary of Santos (São Paulo State - Brazil) is threatening marine-estuarine ecosystems, including their environmental goods and services. This article focuses on the analysis of the controversy of an environmental licensing of a modern...

  • Characterization of fish assemblages in a tropical coastal lagoon in the northwest Gulf of Mexico.
    Díaz-Ruiz, Silvia; Pérez-Hernández, Marco Aurelio; Aguirre-León, Arturo // Ciencias Marinas; dic2003, Vol. 29 Issue 4B, p631 

    Tamiahua is one of the largest estuarine-lagoonal systems in the Mexican Gulf of Mexico. It has great economic and ecological importance due to high fisheries productivity and because it serves as a nursery, feeding and reproduction area for numerous populations of fishes and crustaceans....

  • Regional Estuarine and Coastal Systems of the Americas: An Introduction.
    Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Kjerfve, Björn // Journal of Coastal Research; Jul2005, Vol. 21 Issue 4, p729 

    The article discusses the Regional Estuarine and Coastal Systems of the Americas (RECSA) symposium organized in 2001 in Mar del Plata, Argentina. It was a venue for a large number of researchers and graduate students from all over the Americas, as well as from other parts of the world, to...

  • Saving the Chesapeake.
    Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Kjerfve, Björn // Earthwatch: The Journal of Earthwatch Institute; Jul/Aug94, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p78 

    Describes the Earthwatch project led by Dr. James Perry III and Sharon Dewing on estuarine ecology which will take place in York River Estuary, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Impact of global warming; Factors contribution to the destruction of wetlands; Tracking of seasonal versus long-term trends;...

  • Community structure changes of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea.
    Zhang, Junlong; Xu, Fengshan; Liu, Ruiyu // Chinese Journal of Oceanology & Limnology; Mar2012, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p248 

    The ecological environment in the Yellow Sea has changed greatly from the 1950s to 1990s and this has had significant impact on marine organisms. In this study, data on soft-sediment macrobenthos occurring in depths from 25 m to 81 m in the South Yellow Sea were used to compare changes in...

  • Isotopic Ratios Reveal Mixed Seasonal Variation Among Fishes from Two Subtropical Estuarine Systems.
    Olin, Jill; Rush, Scott; MacNeil, M.; Fisk, Aaron // Estuaries & Coasts; May2012, Vol. 35 Issue 3, p811 

    Characterizing dietary resources and species interactions in estuaries is challenging, particularly when considering the dynamic nature of these ecosystems, the ranges in body sizes of species, and the potential for trophic roles to vary with ontogeny. We examined the influence of season and...

  • Response of diatom assemblages to 130 years of environmental change in Florida Bay (USA).
    Wachnicka, Anna; Collins, Laurel; Gaiser, Evelyn // Journal of Paleolimnology; Jan2013, Vol. 49 Issue 1, p83 

    Coastal ecosystems around the world are constantly changing in response to interacting shifts in climate and land and water use by expanding human populations. The development of agricultural and urban areas in South Florida significantly modified its hydrologic regime and influenced rates of...

  • Climate-Caused Abrupt Shifts in a European Macrotidal Estuary.
    Chaalali, Aurélie; Beaugrand, Grégory; Boët, Philippe; Sautour, Benoît // Estuaries & Coasts; Nov2013, Vol. 36 Issue 6, p1193 

    Although many consequences of climate change on marine and terrestrial ecosystems are well documented, the characterisation of estuarine ecosystems specific responses and the drivers of the changes are less understood. In this study, we considered the biggest Southwestern European estuary, the...

  • Factors Influencing Bacterial Production in a Shallow Estuarine System.
    Almeida, M. A.; Cunha, M. A.; Alcântara, F. // Microbial Ecology; Oct2001, Vol. 42 Issue 3, p416 

    The bacterioplankton of the marine and brackish water zones of the complex system Ria de Aveiro was characterized as profiles of bacterial abundance and biomass productivity. During the warm season, total bacteria ranged from 0.2 to 8.5 × 109 cells L-1 and active bacteria number from 0.1 to...

  • The effect of temperature and salinity on oxygen consumption in the brachyuran crab Cyclograpsus punctatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae).
    Winch, James J. W. W.; Hodgson, Alan N. // African Zoology; Apr2007, Vol. 42 Issue 1, p118 

    The aquatic oxygen consumption of the estuarine brachyuran crab, Cyclograpsus punctatus, was investigated after a 24-hour acclimation period at different temperature (12.5, 20, 30°C) and salinity (9, 17.5, 35, and 44%0) combinations. Salinity had no significant effect on oxygen consumption at...

  • Phosphorus fractionation in sediments of the Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem, south-eastern coast of India.
    Ranjan, Rajesh Kumar; Ramanathan, AL.; Chauhan, Rita; Singh, Gurmeet // Environmental Earth Sciences; Apr2011, Vol. 62 Issue 8, p1779 

    Present study examined phosphorus dynamics through delineation of source as well as availability of phosphorus and its fractionation within the intertidal sediments of Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem. Twelve sediment samples and two cores were collected from the mangrove forest along with...

  • Comparative Analysis of Reproductive Traits in Black-Chinned Tilapia Females from Various Coastal Marine, Estuarine and Freshwater Ecosystems.
    Guèye, Moussa; Tine, Mbaye; Kantoussan, Justin; Ndiaye, Papa; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Albaret, Jean-Jacques // PLoS ONE; Jan2012, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p1 

    The black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron is a marine teleost characterised by an extreme euryhalinity. However, beyond a certain threshold at very high salinity, the species exhibits impaired growth and precocious reproduction. In this study, the relationships between reproductive...

  • Poverty Profiling of the Estuarine Set Bag Net Fishermen Community in Bangladesh.
    Md. Rashed.-Un.-Nabi; Hoque, Md. Azharul; Rahman, Ridzwan Abdul; Mustafa, Saleem; Kader, Md. Abdul // Research in World Economy; Oct2011, Vol. 2 Issue 2, p2 

    Poverty is a major threat to the coastal communities specially the estuarine set-beg net fishermen in Bangladesh. This study covers the poverty profiling of this community through traditional approaches as well as sustainable livelihoods approach. The headcount ratio of the investigated villages...

  • Water clarity and eelgrass responses to nitrogen reductions in the eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark.
    Carstensen, Jacob; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Markager, Stiig; Timmermann, Karen; Windolf, Jørgen // Hydrobiologia; Mar2013, Vol. 704 Issue 1, p293 

    Eelgrass depth limits and water clarity in the Skive Fjord estuarine system have not improved despite nutrient input reductions of 30%. Long-term monitoring data (1989-2010) were used to investigate the underlying causes. Dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen concentrations decreased...

  • Extreme Estuarine Flooding Leading to Estuary Transverse Flow Salinity Intrusion.
    Haron, Nuryazmeen Farhan; Tahir, Wardah; Lee Wei Koon // International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering; Apr2013, Vol. 13 Issue 2, p54 

    The objective of this paper is to explain the extent of estuarine flooding to estuary transverse flow salinity intrusion. Water quality along the estuary is influenced by salinity intrusion during normal flow condition. However, during the extreme estuarine flooding, the water quality will...

  • Sustained Swimming Performance in Crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus): Effects of Body Size and Temperature.
    Elsworth, Peter G.; Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E. // Journal of Herpetology; Jun2003, Vol. 37 Issue 2, p363 

    Examines the effects of body size and temperature on the swimming performance of estuarine crocodiles. Measurement of the swimming performance in a temperature- and flow-controlled swimming flume; Increase of absolute sustainable swimming speed with body length; Observation of the broad plateau...

  • The decomposition of estuarine macrophytes under different temperature regimes.
    Lemley, D. A.; Snow, G. C.; Human, L. R. D. // Water SA; Jan2014, Vol. 40 Issue 1, p117 

    The Great Brak Estuary is a temporarily open/closed system situated along the warm temperate coast of the Western Cape, South Africa. The estuary is subject to a variety of anthropogenic impacts (e.g. freshwater abstraction and sewage discharge) that increases its susceptibility to prolonged...

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