Citations with the tag: DIVERGENCE (Biology)

Results 151 - 200

  • Genetic mechanisms involved in the evolution of the cephalopod camera eye revealed by transcriptomic and developmental studies.
    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Ogura, Atsushi // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p180 

    Background: Coleoid cephalopods (squids and octopuses) have evolved a camera eye, the structure of which is very similar to that found in vertebrates and which is considered a classic example of convergent evolution. Other molluscs, however, possess mirror, pin-hole, or compound eyes, all of...

  • Variations on a theme: diversification of cuticular hydrocarbons in a clade of cactophilic Drosophila.
    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Ogura, Atsushi // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p179 

    The article reports on the quantitative differences analysis in chemical composition of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in seven species of the drosophila buzzatii cluster. It states the analysis was done to assess the concordance of CHC differentiation with species divergence. Multivariate...

  • Predictors for reproductive isolation in a ring species complex following genetic and ecological divergence.
    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Ogura, Atsushi // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p194 

    The article reports on quantitative analysis of genetic interactions at several stages of divergence within the ring species complex ensatina eschscholtzi to assess the contribution of genetic and ecological divergence for the development of reproductive isolation (RI). The results show, in...

  • Population connectivity: dam migration mitigations and contemporary site fidelity in arctic char.
    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Ogura, Atsushi // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p207 

    The article reports on a study which examines genetic population connectivity of highly migrating lake-dwelling Arctic char, within two subalpine lakes separated by a dam with a subterranean tunnel and spill gates. Char populations, with similar genetic structuring and diversity observed across...

  • CpG site degeneration triggered by the loss of functional constraint created a highly polymorphic macaque drug-metabolizing gene, CYP1A2.
    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Ogura, Atsushi // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p283 

    The article presents information on a study on the pattern of divergence and polymorphisms of major drug-metabolizing genes in humans including macaque CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes. The study found that the CYP1A1/2 gene copy number and orientation is highly conserved in mammalian genomes. The study...

  • Integrative analyses of speciation and divergence in Psammodromus hispanicus (Squamata: Lacertidae).
    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Ogura, Atsushi // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p347 

    The article focuses on the genetic, phenotype and ecological divergence within a lineage. It states that this divergence is caused because of ongoing evolutionary processes. It mentions that this study uses phylogenetic, phenotypic, geographic, and environmental data for investigating the...

  • Community Genetics Reveal Elevated Levels of Sympatric Gene Flow among Morphologically Similar but Not among Morphologically Dissimilar Species of Lake Victoria Cichlid Fish.
    Konijnendijk, N.; Joyce, D. A.; Mrosso, H. D. J.; Egas, M.; Seehausen, O. // International Journal of Evolutionary Biology; 2011, Vol. 2011, p1 

    We examined genetic structure among five species of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlids in four island communities, using a full factorial sampling design that compared genetic differentiation between pairs of species and populations of varying morphological similarity and geographical...

  • Molecular characterization of the breakpoints of an inversion fixed between Drosophila...
    Cirera, Susanna; Martin-Campos, Jesus M. // Genetics; Jan95, Vol. 139 Issue 1, p321 

    Describes the identification of one of the breakdown points of an inversion fixed during the divergence of Drosophila melanogaster and D. subobscura. Sequence comparison; Search for homologies; Delimitation of breakpoints; Detection of a transcription unit.

  • A systematic evaluation of hybridization-based mouse exome capture system.
    Gao, Qingsong; Wei Sun; Xintian You; Froehler, Sebastian; Wei Chen // BMC Genomics; 2013, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p1 

    Background: Exome sequencing is increasingly used to search for phenotypically-relevant sequence variants in the mouse genome. All of the current hybridization-based mouse exome capture systems are designed based on the genome reference sequences of the C57BL/6 J strain. Given that the...

  • Consistency of gene starts among Burkholderia genomes.
    Dunbar, John; Cohn, Judith D.; Wall, Michael E. // BMC Genomics; 2011, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p125 

    Background: Evolutionary divergence in the position of the translational start site among orthologous genes can have significant functional impacts. Divergence can alter the translation rate, degradation rate, subcellular location, and function of the encoded proteins. Results: Existing Genbank...

  • Subfunctionalization of Duplicated Zebrafish pax6 Genes by cis-Regulatory Divergence.
    Kleinjan, Dirk A.; Bancewicz, Ruth M.; Gautier, Philippe; Dahm, Ralf; Schonthaler, Helia B.; Damante, Giuseppe; Seawright1, Anne; Hever, Ann M.; Yeyati, Patricia L.; van Heyningen, Veronica; Coutinho, Pedro // PLoS Genetics; Feb2008, Vol. 4 Issue 2, p1 

    Gene duplication is a major driver of evolutionary divergence. In most vertebrates a single PAX6 gene encodes a transcription factor required for eye, brain, olfactory system, and pancreas development. In zebrafish, following a postulated whole-genome duplication event in an ancestral teleost,...

  • Potential mechanisms of phenotypic divergence in body size between Newfoundland and mainland black bear populations.
    Mahoney, Shane P.; Virgl, John A.; Mawhinney, Kim // Canadian Journal of Zoology; Sep2001, Vol. 79 Issue 9, p1650 

    Phenotypic variation in body size and degree of sexual size dimorphism of North American black bears (Ursus americanus) was quantified for populations from New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Maine, Alaska, and the island of Newfoundland. Based on a model of island biogeography developed by Case, we...

  • Evolutionary divergence of chloroplast FAD synthetase proteins.
    Yruela, Inmaculada; Arilla-Luna, Sonia; Medina, Milagros; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2010, Vol. 10, p311 

    Background: Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetases (FADSs) - a group of bifunctional enzymes that carry out the dual functions of riboflavin phosphorylation to produce flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and its subsequent adenylation to generate FAD in most prokaryotes - were studied in plants in...

  • Evolution of Rhizaria: new insights from phylogenomic analysis of uncultivated protists.
    Burki, Fabien; Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Matz, Mikhail V.; Aglyamova, Galina V.; Bulman, Simon; Fiers, Mark; Keeling, Patrick J.; Pawlowski, Jan // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2010, Vol. 10, p377 

    Background: Recent phylogenomic analyses have revolutionized our view of eukaryote evolution by revealing unexpected relationships between and within the eukaryotic supergroups. However, for several groups of uncultivable protists, only the ribosomal RNA genes and a handful of proteins are...

  • Formulated Beta-Cyfluthrin Shows Wide Divergence in Toxicity among Bird Species.
    Addy-Orduna, Laura M.; Zaccagnini, Mar´ıa-Elena; Canavelli, Sonia B.; Mineau, Pierre // Journal of Toxicology; 2011, p1 

    It is generally assumed that the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to birds is negligible, though few species have been tested. The oral acute toxicity of formulated beta-cyfluthrin was determined for canaries (Serinus sp.), shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis), and eared doves (Zenaida...

  • Phylogeny and Biogeography of Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae): Evidence from Five Nuclear Genes.
    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Mignault, Andre A.; Regier, Jerome C.; Kitching, Ian J.; Mitter, Charles // PLoS ONE; 2009, Vol. 4 Issue 5, p1 

    Background: The 1400 species of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) comprise one of most conspicuous and wellstudied groups of insects, and provide model systems for diverse biological disciplines. However, a robust phylogenetic framework for the family is currently lacking. Morphology is unable...

  • A Passerine Bird's Evolution Corroborates the Geologic History of the Island of New Guinea.
    Deiner, Kristy; Lemmon, Alan R.; Mack, Andrew L.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Dumbacher, John P. // PLoS ONE; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 5, p1 

    New Guinea is a biologically diverse island, with a unique geologic history and topography that has likely played a role in the evolution of species. Few island-wide studies, however, have examined the phylogeographic history of lowland species. The objective of this study was to examine...

  • Cross-Neutralization Potential of Native Human Papillomavirus N-Terminal L2 Epitopes.
    Conway, Michael J.; Cruz, Linda; Alam, Samina; Christensen, Neil David; Meyers, Craig // PLoS ONE; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p1 

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) capsids are composed of 72 pentamers of the major capsid protein L1, and an unknown number of L2 minor capsid proteins. An N-terminal ''external loop'' of L2 contains cross-neutralizing epitopes, and native HPV16 virions extracted from 20-day-old...

  • Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice.
    Conway, Michael J.; Cruz, Linda; Alam, Samina; Christensen, Neil David; Meyers, Craig // BMC Biology; 2012, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p52 

    The article presents a study on the repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice. Feather lice generally follow one of four escape mechanisms corresponding to the main regions of the main groups of the hosts body. The pattern of repeated adaptive divergence...

  • Cryptic Speciation in the Caesalpinia hintonii Complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a Seasonally Dry Mexican Forest.
    Solange Sotuyo; Alfonso Delgado-Salinas; Mark W. Chase; Gwilym P. Lewis; Ken Oyama // Annals of Botany; Nov2007, Vol. 100 Issue 6, p1307 

    : Backgroud and Aims The Caesalpinia hintonii group comprises six species of endemic shrubs or trees, C. epifanioi, C. hintonii, C. laxa, C. macvaughii, C. melanadenia and C. oyamae, found in scattered patches of seasonally dry forest in the Río Balsas depression and the neighbouring...

  • Repeated Lake-Stream Divergence in Stickleback Life History within a Central European Lake Basin.
    Moser, Dario; Roesti, Marius; Berner, Daniel // PLoS ONE; Dec2012, Vol. 7 Issue 12, p1 

    Life history divergence between populations inhabiting ecologically distinct habitats might be a potent source of reproductive isolation, but has received little attention in the context of speciation. We here test for life history divergence between threespine stickleback inhabiting Lake...

  • Zoogeography of Intertidal Communities in the West Indian Ocean as Determined by Ocean Circulation Systems: Patterns from the Tetraclita Barnacles.
    Ling Ming Tsang; Yair Achituv; Ka Hou Chu; Benny Kwok Kan Chan; Senjie Lin // PLoS ONE; Sep2012, Vol. 7 Issue 9, Special section p1 

    The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the...

  • Genome-Wide Characterization of Adaptation and Speciation in Tiger Swallowtail Butterflies Using De Novo Transcriptome Assemblies.
    Zhang, Wei; Kunte, Krushnamegh; Kronforst, Marcus R. // Genome Biology & Evolution; Jun2013, Vol. 5 Issue 6, p1233 

    Hybrid speciation appears to be rare in animals, yet characterization of possible examples offers to shed light on the genomic consequences of this unique phenomenon, as well as more general processes such as the role of adaptation in speciation. Here, we first generate transcriptome assemblies...

  • The impact of RNA structure on coding sequence evolution in both bacteria and eukaryotes.
    Wanjun Gu; Musheng Li; Yuming Xu; Ting Wang; Jae-Hong Ko; Tong Zhou // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2014, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p1 

    Background Many studies have found functional RNA secondary structures are selectively conserved among species. But, the effect of RNA structure selection on coding sequence evolution remains unknown. To address this problem, we systematically investigated the relationship between nucleotide...

  • Rock outcrop orchids reveal the genetic connectivity and diversity of inselbergs of northeastern Brazil.
    Pinheiro, Fábio; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Draper, David; de Barros, Fábio; Félix, Leonardo P.; Fay, Michael F.; Palma-Silva, Clarisse // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2014, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p1 

    Background: Because of their fragmented nature, inselberg species are interesting biological models for studying the genetic consequences of disjoint populations. Inselbergs are commonly compared with oceanic islands, as most of them display a marked ecological isolation from the surrounding...

  • molecular clock (1967) Biology.
    Pinheiro, Fábio; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Draper, David; de Barros, Fábio; Félix, Leonardo P.; Fay, Michael F.; Palma-Silva, Clarisse // Dictionary of Theories; 2002, p349 

    Information on the theory of molecular clock is presented. The theory states that the rate of accumulation of genetic difference between two species is approximately proportional to the evolutionary time that has passed since the species diverged. The studies suggest that the divergence occurred...

  • Functional Divergence among Silkworm Antimicrobial Peptide Paralogs by the Activities of Recombinant Proteins and the Induced Expression Profiles.
    Yang, Wanying; Cheng, Tingcai; Ye, Mingqiang; Deng, Xiaojuan; Yi, Huiyu; Huang, Yadong; Tan, Xiang; Han, Dong; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou // PLoS ONE; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 3, p1 

    Antimicrobial peptides are small-molecule proteins that are usually encoded by multiple-gene families. They play crucial roles in the innate immune response, but reports on the functional divergence of antimicrobial peptide gene families are rare. In this study, 14 paralogs of antimicrobial...

  • Comparing the Usefulness of Distance, Monophyly and Character-Based DNA Barcoding Methods in Species Identification: A Case Study of Neogastropoda.
    Shanmei Zou; Qi Li; Lingfeng Kong; Hong Yu; Xiaodong Zheng // PLoS ONE; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 10, p1 

    Background: DNA barcoding has recently been proposed as a promising tool for the rapid species identification in a wide range of animal taxa. Two broad methods (distance and monophyly-based methods) have been used. One method is based on degree of DNA sequence variation within and between...

  • Phylogenetic Status and Timescale for the Diversification of Steno and Sotalia Dolphins.
    Cunha, Haydeé A.; Moraes, Lucas C.; Medeiros, Bruna V.; Lailson-Brito Jr., José; Silva, Vera M. F. da; Solé-Cava, Antonio M.; Schrago, Carlos G. // PLoS ONE; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 12, p1 

    Molecular data have provided many insights into cetacean evolution but some unsettled issues still remain. We estimated the topology and timing of cetacean evolutionary relationships using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of complete mitochondrial genomes. In order to clarify the...

  • A new dendroecological method to differentiate growth responses to fine-scale disturbance from regional-scale environmental variation.
    Thompson, R. Douglas; Daniels, Lori D.; Lewis, Kathy J. // Canadian Journal of Forest Research; Jun2007, Vol. 37 Issue 6, p1034 

    A new dendroecological method is developed to differentiate growth responses to fine-scale disturbance from regional-scale environmental variation. In spruce�fir forests of central British Columbia, release from suppression in response to overhead canopy tree mortality was calibrated as...

  • Laser Transmission Holograms Maximum Permissible Exposure.
    Dawson, Paula; Wilksch, P. A. // AIP Conference Proceedings; 5/31/2010, Vol. 1226 Issue 1, p147 

    The laser illumination of holograms for public display is governed by international standard IEC 60825-3, to which the Australian Standard AS/NZS 2211.3 conforms. These standards do not accommodate vital mitigating factors of hologram replay that impinge on the level of laser power i.e. angle of...

  • Accounting for the Error due to Unresolved Scales in Ensemble Data Assimilation: A Comparison of Different Approaches.
    Hamill, Thomas M.; Whitaker, Jeffrey S. // Monthly Weather Review; Nov2005, Vol. 133 Issue 11, p3132 

    Insufficient model resolution is one source of model error in numerical weather predictions. Methods for parameterizing this error in ensemble data assimilations are explored here. Experiments were conducted with a two-layer primitive equation model, where the assumed true state was a T127...

  • Systematics of the North American menhadens: molecular evolutionary reconstructions in the genus Brevoortia (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae).
    Anderson, Joel D. // Fishery Bulletin; Jul2007, Vol. 105 Issue 3, p368 

    Evolutionary associations among the four North American species of menhadens (Brevoortia spp.) have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, classifications separating the four species into small-scaled and large-scaled groups were evaluated by using DNA data, and genetic...

  • An overview of the processes shaping protein evolution.
    Sleator, Roy D. // Science Progress; Mar2010, Vol. 93 Issue 1, p1 

    From a comparatively small number of protein structural domains a staggering array of structural variants has evolved which has, in turn, facilitated an expanse of functional derivatives. Herein I review the primary mechanisms which have contributed to the vastness of our existing, and...

  • Molecular phylogeny of Alnus (Betulaceae), inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences.
    Navarro, Elisabeth; Bousquet, Jean; Moiroud, Andr�; Munive, Antonio; Piou, Dominique; Normand, Philippe // Plant & Soil; Jul2003, Vol. 254 Issue 1, p207 

    The nuclear ITS region of 19 species of Alnus was amplified and sequenced. The inferred molecular phylogeny shows that all species of the genus Alnus form a monophyletic group close to Betula and that the fundamental dichotomy within the genus lies between the subgenera Alnaster and...

  • Evolution of Dystaenia takesimana (Apiaceae), endemic to Ullung Island, Korea.
    Pfosser, M.; Jakubowsky, G.; Schl�ter, P.; Fer, T.; Kato, H.; Stuessy, T.; Sun, B.-Y. // Plant Systematics & Evolution; Nov2005, Vol. 256 Issue 1-4, p159 

    Dystaenia (Apiaceae) consists of two species, one distributed in Japan ( D. ibukiensis), and the other endemic to Ullung Island, Korea ( D. takesimana). In comparison with representative outgroup taxa in Ligusticum, Seseli, Angelica, and Osmorhiza, Dystaenia is shown to be monophyletic based on...

  • Normapolles plants: a prominent component of the Cretaceous rosid diversification.
    Friis, E.; Pedersen, K.; Sch�nenberger, J. // Plant Systematics & Evolution; Sep2006, Vol. 260 Issue 2-4, p107 

    The Normapolles complex, characterised by its oblate and triaperturate pollen, constitutes an important and diverse element of many Late Cretaceous and Early Cainozoic floras of the Northern Hemisphere. Based on the dispersed pollen record alone it has been difficult to assess systematic...

  • Internal Repetition and Intraindividual Variation in the rDNA ITS1 of the Anopheles punctulatus Group (Diptera: Culicidae): Multiple Units and Rates of Turnover.
    Bower, James E.; Cooper, Robert D.; Beebe, Nigel W. // Journal of Molecular Evolution; Jan2009, Vol. 68 Issue 1, p66 

    The rapid divergence of repetitive sequences makes them desirable markers for phylogenetic studies of closely related groups, provided that a high level of sequence homogeneity has been maintained within species. Intraspecific polymorphisms are found in an increasing number of studies now, and...

  • Genetic structure of peripheral, island-like populations: a case study of Saponaria bellidifolia Sm. (Caryophyllaceae) from the Southeastern Carpathians.
    Cserg�, Anna-M�ria; Sch�nswetter, Peter; Mara, Gy�ngyv�r; De�k, Tam�s; Boscaiu, Nicolae; H�hn, M�ria // Plant Systematics & Evolution; Mar2009, Vol. 278 Issue 1/2, p33 

    Geographically peripheral populations often experience a reduction of genetic diversity and divergence from the core populations. Habitat geometry and quality can induce a local genetic diversity pattern, which overlies the regional variability issued from the range-wide phylogeography. We...

  • Genetic Structure in Contemporary South Tyrolean Isolated Populations Revealed by Analysis of Y-Chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu Polymorphisms.
    Pichler, Irene; Mueller, Jakob C.; Stefanov, Stefan A.; de Grandi, Alessandro; Volpato, Claudia Beu; Pinggera, Gerd K.; Mayr, Agnes; Ogriseg, Martin; Ploner, Franz; Meitinger, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter P. // Human Biology; Aug2006, Vol. 78 Issue 4, p441 

    Most of the inhabitants of South Tyrol in the eastern Italian Alps can be considered isolated populations because of their physical separation by mountain barriers and their sociocultural heritage. We analyzed the genetic structure of South Tyrolean populations using three types of genetic...

  • Prevalence of monochloroacetate degrading genotypes among soil isolates of Pseudomonas sp.
    Kocabiyik, Semra; Caba, Ebru // Biodegradation; 1998, Vol. 8 Issue 6, p371 

    This study reports the isolation of Pseudomonas sp. strains with monochloroacetate (MCA) degradation function, from uncontaminated soil, and the use of Southern blot hybridization technique to detect MCA degrading catabolic genes and their divergence. Based on their capacity to remove Cl- from...

  • An outline of the theory of the genetic divergence of dry-land and bog populations of Pinus sylvestris L.
    Sannikov, S.; Petrova, I. // Russian Journal of Ecology; Sep2010, Vol. 41 Issue 5, p393 

    The thesis of the genetic divergence of Pinus sylvestris L. populations that have spread to bogs from the original dry-land populations has been deduced from the concept of the cyclicity of helio- and geophysical processes, derivative postulates on climatic cycles, formation of Holocene high...

  • Late ontogeny growth acceleration and size form transformations in Transbaikalian Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus complex: evidence from fin ray cross section growth layers.
    Alekseyev, Sergey; Mina, Mikhail; Smirina, Ella; Sokolov, Aleksey // Environmental Biology of Fishes; Dec2009, Vol. 86 Issue 4, p487 

    In some polymorphic populations of Arctic charr in Transbaikalia, an individual can transform from a smaller to larger size form during their lifetime as a result of accelerated growth that follows a period of slow growth and reproduction as a small size form. Alternating periods of slow and...

  • Inherited maternal effects on the drought tolerance of a natural hybrid aquatic plant, Potamogeton anguillanus.
    Iida, Satoko; Yamada, Ayumi; Amano, Momoe; Ishii, Jun; Kadono, Yasuro; Kosuge, Keiko // Journal of Plant Research; Jul2007, Vol. 120 Issue 4, p473 

    We tested whether maternal effects have led to the adaptive divergence of strains of the natural hybrid Potamogeton anguillanus, whose putative parents show contrastingly divergent ecologies. To examine the correlation between phenotypic characters and maternal types, we conducted drought...

  • Ecological diversity and speciation in land snails of the genus Mandarina from the Bonin Islands.
    Chiba, Satoshi // Population Ecology; Dec2002, Vol. 44 Issue 3, p0179 

    Endemic land snails of the genus Mandarina of the oceanic Bonin Islands offer an example of habitat and character divergence among closely related species. The molecular phylogenies of Mandarina show that a divergence of arboreal, semiarboreal, and ground-dwelling species has occurred repeatedly...

  • The origins of postmating reproductive isolation: testing hypotheses in the grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus.
    Tregenza, Tom; Pritchard, Victoria L.; Butlin, Roger K. // Population Ecology; Dec2002, Vol. 44 Issue 3, p0137 

    Although there are several well-established hypotheses for the origins of postmating isolation during allopatric divergence, there have been very few attempts to determine their relative importance in nature. We have developed an approach based on knowledge of the differing evolutionary...

  • Antitropicality of Pacific Fishes: Molecular Insights.
    Burridge, Christopher P. // Environmental Biology of Fishes; Oct2002, Vol. 65 Issue 2, p151 

    Twenty-one molecular genetic studies of thirteen antitropical Pacific fishes are herein reviewed. High dispersal potentials and Plio-Pleistocene transequatorial divergence are suggested for approximately half of the taxa studied, consistent with movement across the tropics during glacial...

  • Ecological speciation! Or the lack thereof?
    Hendry, Andrew P. // Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences; Aug2009, Vol. 66 Issue 8, p1383 

    Ecological speciation occurs when adaptation to different environments or resources causes the evolution of reproductive isolation. This process is now thought to be very important in the evolution of biological diversity. Indeed, support for ecological speciation is so often asserted in the...

  • Estimating Divergence Times in Large Phylogenetic Trees.
    Britton, Tom; Anderson, Cajsa Lisa; Jacquet, David; Lundqvist, Samuel; Bremer, K�re // Systematic Biology; Oct2007, Vol. 56 Issue 5, p741 

    A new method, PATHd8, for estimating ultrametric trees from trees with edge (branch) lengths proportional to the number of substitutions is proposed. The method allows for an arbitrary number of reference nodes for time calibration, each defined either as absolute age, minimum age, or maximum...

  • Accounting for Solvent Accessibility and Secondary Structure in Protein Phylogenetics Is Clearly Beneficial.
    SI QUANG LE; GASCUEL, OLIVIER // Systematic Biology; May2010, Vol. 59 Issue 3, p277 

    Amino acid substitution models are essential to most methods to infer phylogenies from protein data. These models represent the ways in which proteins evolve and substitutions accumulate along the course of time. It is widely accepted that the substitution processes vary depending on the...

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