Citations with the tag: DIVERGENCE (Biology)

Results 151 - 200

  • Ancient lineage, young troglobites: recent colonization of caves by Nesticella spiders.
    Yuanyuan Zhang; Shuqiang Li // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2013, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p1 

    Background: The evolution and origin of cave organisms is a recurring issue in evolutionary studies, but analyses are often hindered by the inaccessibility of caves, morphological convergence, and complex colonization processes. Here we investigated the evolutionary history of Nesticella cave...

  • An Integrative Method for Delimiting Cohesion Species: Finding the Population-Species Interface in a Group of Californian Trapdoor Spiders with Extreme Genetic Divergence and Geographic Structuring.
    Bond, Jason E.; Stockman, Amy K. // Systematic Biology; Aug2008, Vol. 57 Issue 4, p628 

    Here we present an objective, repeatable approach to delineating species when populations are divergent and highly structured geographically using the Californian trapdoor spider species complex Aptostichus atomarius Simon as a model system. This system is particularly difficult because under...

  • A Bioenergetic Basis for Membrane Divergence in Archaea and Bacteria.
    Sojo, Víctor; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick // PLoS Biology; Aug2014, Vol. 12 Issue 8, p1 

    The deepest split in the tree of life is between archaea and bacteria. We show this split can be explained by the late evolution of impermeable membranes, for energetic reasons.

  • The personal experience of parenting a child with Juvenile Huntington's Disease: perceptions across Europe.
    Eatough, Virginia; Santini, Helen; Eiser, Christine; Goller, Marie-Louise; Krysa, Wioletta; de Nicola, 'Annunziata'; Paduanello, Matteo; Petrollini, Martina; Rakowicz, Maria; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Tibben, Aad; Lee Weille, Katie; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Quarrell, Oliver; Smith, Jonathan A // European Journal of Human Genetics; Oct2013, Vol. 21 Issue 10, p1042 

    The study reported here presents a detailed description of what it is like to parent a child with juvenile Huntington's disease in families across four European countries. Its primary aim was to develop and extend findings from a previous UK study. The study recruited parents from four European...

  • Short and long-term genome stability analysis of prokaryotic genomes.
    Brilli, Matteo; Liò, Pietro; Lacroix, Vincent; Sagot, Marie-France // BMC Genomics; 2013, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p1 

    Background: Gene organization dynamics is actively studied because it provides useful evolutionary information, makes functional annotation easier and often enables to characterize pathogens. There is therefore a strong interest in understanding the variability of this trait and the possible...

  • Consistency of gene starts among Burkholderia genomes.
    Dunbar, John; Cohn, Judith D.; Wall, Michael E. // BMC Genomics; 2011, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p125 

    Background: Evolutionary divergence in the position of the translational start site among orthologous genes can have significant functional impacts. Divergence can alter the translation rate, degradation rate, subcellular location, and function of the encoded proteins. Results: Existing Genbank...

  • A new approach for the analysis of bacterial microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization: insights from an empirical study.
    Taboada, Eduardo N; Acedillo, Rey R; Luebbert, Christian C; Findlay, Wendy A; Nash, John HE // BMC Genomics; 2005, Vol. 6, p78 

    Background: Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (M-CGH) has been used to characterize the extensive intraspecies genetic diversity found in bacteria at the whole-genome level. Although conventional microarray analytical procedures have proved adequate in handling M-CGH data, data...

  • Bushes in the Tree of Life.
    Rokas, Antonis; Carroll, Sean B. // PLoS Biology; Nov2006, Vol. 4 Issue 11, p1899 

    The article presents an essay about the combination of the spacing of cladogenetic events and high frequency of independently evolved characters limit the resolution of ancient divergences. It discusses the concept of the tree of life (TOL), which has been molded by cladogenesis and extinction...

  • Phylogeny and Biogeography of Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae): Evidence from Five Nuclear Genes.
    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Mignault, Andre A.; Regier, Jerome C.; Kitching, Ian J.; Mitter, Charles // PLoS ONE; 2009, Vol. 4 Issue 5, p1 

    Background: The 1400 species of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) comprise one of most conspicuous and wellstudied groups of insects, and provide model systems for diverse biological disciplines. However, a robust phylogenetic framework for the family is currently lacking. Morphology is unable...

  • The complete genome sequences for a novel enterovirus type, enterovirus 96, reflect multiple recombinations.
    Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja // Archives of Virology; Jul2009, Vol. 154 Issue 7, p1157 

    Enterovirus 96 (EV-96) is a recently described genotype in the species Human enterovirus C. So far, only partial genome sequences of this enterovirus type have been available. In this study, we report complete genome sequences for two EV-96 strains isolated from healthy children during...

  • Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice.
    Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja // BMC Biology; 2012, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p52 

    The article presents a study on the repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice. Feather lice generally follow one of four escape mechanisms corresponding to the main regions of the main groups of the hosts body. The pattern of repeated adaptive divergence...

  • Diversity of the Troponin C Genes during Chordate Evolution1.
    Yuasa, Hajime J.; Cox, Jos A.; Takagi, Takashi // Journal of Biochemistry; 1998, Vol. 123 Issue 6, p1180 

    To elucidate the diversity of troponin C (TnC) during chordate evolution, we determined the organization of TnCs from the amphioxus, the lamprey, and the frog. Like the ascidian, the amphioxus possesses a single gene of TnC, and the fundamental gene structure is identical with the ascidian TnC....

  • Rapid Speciation with Gene Flow Following the Formation of Mt. Etna.
    Osborne, Owen G.; Batstone, Thomas E.; Hiscock, Simon J.; Filatov, Dmitry A. // Genome Biology & Evolution; Sep2013, Vol. 5 Issue 9, p1704 

    Environmental or geological changes can create new niches that drive ecological species divergence without the immediate cessation of gene flow. However, few such cases have been characterized. On a recently formed volcano, Mt. Etna, Senecio aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius inhabit...

  • A parasite calcium switch and Achilles' heel revealed.
    Doerig, Christian; Billker, Oliver // Nature Structural & Molecular Biology; May2010, Vol. 17 Issue 5, p541 

    The article comments on research study published in the issue related to the crystal structures of the calcium-dependent protein kinase. It states that protein kinases are considered to be the major targets in fight against cancer. It states that Adenosine Trip Hosphate (ATP) bindings can be...

  • Characterization of the cofactor-binding site in the SPOUT-fold methyltransferases by computational docking of Sadenosylmethionine to three crystal structures.
    Kurowski, Michal A.; Sasin, Joanna M.; Feder, Marcin; Debski, Janusz; Bujnicki, Janusz M. // BMC Bioinformatics; 2003, Vol. 4, p1 

    Background: There are several evolutionarily unrelated and structurally dissimilar superfamilies of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases (MTases). A new superfamily (SPOUT) has been recently characterized on a sequence level and three structures of its members (1gz0, 1ipa,...

  • Dynamics of estuarine residual circulation in a narrow channel including tidal-nonlinear effects.
    Yoshiaki Shiraki; Tetsuo Yanagi // Journal of Oceanography; Jun2007, Vol. 63 Issue 3, p413 

    Abstract  Numerical modeling of a semienclosed narrow channel demonstrates the dynamical dependency of an estuarine residual circulation (ERC) on tidal amplitudes. The ERC is defined by tidally-averaged current field. The tidally-averaged fields show that the ERC-strength variation is...

  • The genomic landscape of species divergence in Ficedula flycatchers.
    Ellegren, Hans; Smeds, Linnéa; Burri, Reto; Olason, Pall I.; Backström, Niclas; Kawakami, Takeshi; Künstner, Axel; Mäkinen, Hannu; Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Qvarnström, Anna; Uebbing, Severin; Wolf, Jochen B. W. // Nature; 11/29/2012, Vol. 491 Issue 7426, p756 

    Unravelling the genomic landscape of divergence between lineages is key to understanding speciation. The naturally hybridizing collared flycatcher and pied flycatcher are important avian speciation models that show pre- as well as postzygotic isolation. We sequenced and assembled the 1.1-Gb...

  • Potential mechanisms of phenotypic divergence in body size between Newfoundland and mainland black bear populations.
    Mahoney, Shane P.; Virgl, John A.; Mawhinney, Kim // Canadian Journal of Zoology; Sep2001, Vol. 79 Issue 9, p1650 

    Phenotypic variation in body size and degree of sexual size dimorphism of North American black bears (Ursus americanus) was quantified for populations from New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Maine, Alaska, and the island of Newfoundland. Based on a model of island biogeography developed by Case, we...

  • An integrated approach for the comparative analysis of a multigene family: The nicotianamine synthase genes of barley.
    Perovic, Dragan; Tiffin, Peter; Douchkov, Dimitar; Bäumlein, Helmut; Graner, Andreas // Functional & Integrative Genomics; Apr2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p169 

    Recent genomic projects reveal that about half of the gene repertoire in plant genomes is made up by multigene families. In this paper, a set of structural and phylogenetic analyses have been applied to compare the differently sized nicotianamine synthase (NAS) gene families in barley and rice....

  • A simple quality of life questionnaire for patients with faecal incontinence.
    Krysa, Jo; Lyons, Monica; Williams, Andrew B. // International Journal of Colorectal Disease; Oct2009, Vol. 24 Issue 10, p1213 

    A simple quality of life questionnaire was designed to triage patients with faecal incontinence to the most appropriate level of support, investigation and treatment. A questionnaire was developed to include a ‘symptom’ score, similar in content to St Mark’s questionnaire and...

  • The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey (2006-2010): a summary of principal findings.
    Sherwood, Alison R.; Kurihara, Akira; Conklin, Kimberly Y.; Sauvage, Thomas; Presting, Gernot G. // BMC Plant Biology; 2010, Vol. 10, p258 

    Background: The Hawaiian red algal flora is diverse, isolated, and well studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, making it an excellent candidate for assessment using a combination of traditional taxonomic and molecular approaches. Acquiring and making these biodiversity data...

  • Mature habitats associated with genetic divergence despite strong dispersal ability in an arthropod.
    Ishida, Seiji; Taylor, Derek J. // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2007, Vol. 7, p52 

    Background: Populations may be bound by contemporary gene flow, selective sweeps, and extinction-recolonization processes. Indeed, existing molecular estimates indicate that species with low levels of gene flow are rare. However, strong priority effects and local selective regimes may hinder...

  • Evolutionary divergence of chloroplast FAD synthetase proteins.
    Yruela, Inmaculada; Arilla-Luna, Sonia; Medina, Milagros; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2010, Vol. 10, p311 

    Background: Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetases (FADSs) - a group of bifunctional enzymes that carry out the dual functions of riboflavin phosphorylation to produce flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and its subsequent adenylation to generate FAD in most prokaryotes - were studied in plants in...

  • Evolution of Rhizaria: new insights from phylogenomic analysis of uncultivated protists.
    Burki, Fabien; Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Matz, Mikhail V.; Aglyamova, Galina V.; Bulman, Simon; Fiers, Mark; Keeling, Patrick J.; Pawlowski, Jan // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2010, Vol. 10, p377 

    Background: Recent phylogenomic analyses have revolutionized our view of eukaryote evolution by revealing unexpected relationships between and within the eukaryotic supergroups. However, for several groups of uncultivable protists, only the ribosomal RNA genes and a handful of proteins are...

  • Functional Divergence among Silkworm Antimicrobial Peptide Paralogs by the Activities of Recombinant Proteins and the Induced Expression Profiles.
    Yang, Wanying; Cheng, Tingcai; Ye, Mingqiang; Deng, Xiaojuan; Yi, Huiyu; Huang, Yadong; Tan, Xiang; Han, Dong; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou // PLoS ONE; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 3, p1 

    Antimicrobial peptides are small-molecule proteins that are usually encoded by multiple-gene families. They play crucial roles in the innate immune response, but reports on the functional divergence of antimicrobial peptide gene families are rare. In this study, 14 paralogs of antimicrobial...

  • A Passerine Bird's Evolution Corroborates the Geologic History of the Island of New Guinea.
    Deiner, Kristy; Lemmon, Alan R.; Mack, Andrew L.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Dumbacher, John P. // PLoS ONE; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 5, p1 

    New Guinea is a biologically diverse island, with a unique geologic history and topography that has likely played a role in the evolution of species. Few island-wide studies, however, have examined the phylogeographic history of lowland species. The objective of this study was to examine...

  • Comparing the Usefulness of Distance, Monophyly and Character-Based DNA Barcoding Methods in Species Identification: A Case Study of Neogastropoda.
    Shanmei Zou; Qi Li; Lingfeng Kong; Hong Yu; Xiaodong Zheng // PLoS ONE; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 10, p1 

    Background: DNA barcoding has recently been proposed as a promising tool for the rapid species identification in a wide range of animal taxa. Two broad methods (distance and monophyly-based methods) have been used. One method is based on degree of DNA sequence variation within and between...

  • Phylogenetic Status and Timescale for the Diversification of Steno and Sotalia Dolphins.
    Cunha, Haydeé A.; Moraes, Lucas C.; Medeiros, Bruna V.; Lailson-Brito Jr., José; Silva, Vera M. F. da; Solé-Cava, Antonio M.; Schrago, Carlos G. // PLoS ONE; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 12, p1 

    Molecular data have provided many insights into cetacean evolution but some unsettled issues still remain. We estimated the topology and timing of cetacean evolutionary relationships using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of complete mitochondrial genomes. In order to clarify the...

  • Zoogeography of Intertidal Communities in the West Indian Ocean as Determined by Ocean Circulation Systems: Patterns from the Tetraclita Barnacles.
    Ling Ming Tsang; Yair Achituv; Ka Hou Chu; Benny Kwok Kan Chan; Senjie Lin // PLoS ONE; Sep2012, Vol. 7 Issue 9, Special section p1 

    The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the...

  • Cross-Neutralization Potential of Native Human Papillomavirus N-Terminal L2 Epitopes.
    Conway, Michael J.; Cruz, Linda; Alam, Samina; Christensen, Neil David; Meyers, Craig // PLoS ONE; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p1 

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) capsids are composed of 72 pentamers of the major capsid protein L1, and an unknown number of L2 minor capsid proteins. An N-terminal ''external loop'' of L2 contains cross-neutralizing epitopes, and native HPV16 virions extracted from 20-day-old...

  • Genetic structure in species with shallow evolutionary lineages: a case study of the rare flatfish Verasper variegatus.
    Sekino, Masashi; Saitoh, Kenji; Shimizu, Daisuke; Wada, Toshihiro; Kamiyama, Kyoichi; Gambe, Somei; Chen, Siqing; Aritaki, Masato // Conservation Genetics; Feb2011, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p139 

    We examined the genetic population divergence of the spotted halibut Verasper variegatus. A previous report suggested two conservation units for this species along the Japanese Pacific coast. Extending the coverage of the genomes (29 microsatellites and three mitochondrial DNA segments) revealed...

  • molecular clock (1967) Biology.
    Sekino, Masashi; Saitoh, Kenji; Shimizu, Daisuke; Wada, Toshihiro; Kamiyama, Kyoichi; Gambe, Somei; Chen, Siqing; Aritaki, Masato // Dictionary of Theories; 2002, p349 

    Information on the theory of molecular clock is presented. The theory states that the rate of accumulation of genetic difference between two species is approximately proportional to the evolutionary time that has passed since the species diverged. The studies suggest that the divergence occurred...

  • Repeated Lake-Stream Divergence in Stickleback Life History within a Central European Lake Basin.
    Moser, Dario; Roesti, Marius; Berner, Daniel // PLoS ONE; Dec2012, Vol. 7 Issue 12, p1 

    Life history divergence between populations inhabiting ecologically distinct habitats might be a potent source of reproductive isolation, but has received little attention in the context of speciation. We here test for life history divergence between threespine stickleback inhabiting Lake...

  • Laser Transmission Holograms Maximum Permissible Exposure.
    Dawson, Paula; Wilksch, P. A. // AIP Conference Proceedings; 5/31/2010, Vol. 1226 Issue 1, p147 

    The laser illumination of holograms for public display is governed by international standard IEC 60825-3, to which the Australian Standard AS/NZS 2211.3 conforms. These standards do not accommodate vital mitigating factors of hologram replay that impinge on the level of laser power i.e. angle of...

  • Systematics of the North American menhadens: molecular evolutionary reconstructions in the genus Brevoortia (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae).
    Anderson, Joel D. // Fishery Bulletin; Jul2007, Vol. 105 Issue 3, p368 

    Evolutionary associations among the four North American species of menhadens (Brevoortia spp.) have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, classifications separating the four species into small-scaled and large-scaled groups were evaluated by using DNA data, and genetic...

  • Evolution of Dystaenia takesimana (Apiaceae), endemic to Ullung Island, Korea.
    Pfosser, M.; Jakubowsky, G.; Schl�ter, P.; Fer, T.; Kato, H.; Stuessy, T.; Sun, B.-Y. // Plant Systematics & Evolution; Nov2005, Vol. 256 Issue 1-4, p159 

    Dystaenia (Apiaceae) consists of two species, one distributed in Japan ( D. ibukiensis), and the other endemic to Ullung Island, Korea ( D. takesimana). In comparison with representative outgroup taxa in Ligusticum, Seseli, Angelica, and Osmorhiza, Dystaenia is shown to be monophyletic based on...

  • Normapolles plants: a prominent component of the Cretaceous rosid diversification.
    Friis, E.; Pedersen, K.; Sch�nenberger, J. // Plant Systematics & Evolution; Sep2006, Vol. 260 Issue 2-4, p107 

    The Normapolles complex, characterised by its oblate and triaperturate pollen, constitutes an important and diverse element of many Late Cretaceous and Early Cainozoic floras of the Northern Hemisphere. Based on the dispersed pollen record alone it has been difficult to assess systematic...

  • Genetic structure of peripheral, island-like populations: a case study of Saponaria bellidifolia Sm. (Caryophyllaceae) from the Southeastern Carpathians.
    Cserg�, Anna-M�ria; Sch�nswetter, Peter; Mara, Gy�ngyv�r; De�k, Tam�s; Boscaiu, Nicolae; H�hn, M�ria // Plant Systematics & Evolution; Mar2009, Vol. 278 Issue 1/2, p33 

    Geographically peripheral populations often experience a reduction of genetic diversity and divergence from the core populations. Habitat geometry and quality can induce a local genetic diversity pattern, which overlies the regional variability issued from the range-wide phylogeography. We...

  • Genetic Structure in Contemporary South Tyrolean Isolated Populations Revealed by Analysis of Y-Chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu Polymorphisms.
    Pichler, Irene; Mueller, Jakob C.; Stefanov, Stefan A.; de Grandi, Alessandro; Volpato, Claudia Beu; Pinggera, Gerd K.; Mayr, Agnes; Ogriseg, Martin; Ploner, Franz; Meitinger, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter P. // Human Biology; Aug2006, Vol. 78 Issue 4, p441 

    Most of the inhabitants of South Tyrol in the eastern Italian Alps can be considered isolated populations because of their physical separation by mountain barriers and their sociocultural heritage. We analyzed the genetic structure of South Tyrolean populations using three types of genetic...

  • Prevalence of monochloroacetate degrading genotypes among soil isolates of Pseudomonas sp.
    Kocabiyik, Semra; Caba, Ebru // Biodegradation; 1998, Vol. 8 Issue 6, p371 

    This study reports the isolation of Pseudomonas sp. strains with monochloroacetate (MCA) degradation function, from uncontaminated soil, and the use of Southern blot hybridization technique to detect MCA degrading catabolic genes and their divergence. Based on their capacity to remove Cl- from...

  • Late ontogeny growth acceleration and size form transformations in Transbaikalian Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus complex: evidence from fin ray cross section growth layers.
    Alekseyev, Sergey; Mina, Mikhail; Smirina, Ella; Sokolov, Aleksey // Environmental Biology of Fishes; Dec2009, Vol. 86 Issue 4, p487 

    In some polymorphic populations of Arctic charr in Transbaikalia, an individual can transform from a smaller to larger size form during their lifetime as a result of accelerated growth that follows a period of slow growth and reproduction as a small size form. Alternating periods of slow and...

  • Ecological diversity and speciation in land snails of the genus Mandarina from the Bonin Islands.
    Chiba, Satoshi // Population Ecology; Dec2002, Vol. 44 Issue 3, p0179 

    Endemic land snails of the genus Mandarina of the oceanic Bonin Islands offer an example of habitat and character divergence among closely related species. The molecular phylogenies of Mandarina show that a divergence of arboreal, semiarboreal, and ground-dwelling species has occurred repeatedly...

  • The origins of postmating reproductive isolation: testing hypotheses in the grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus.
    Tregenza, Tom; Pritchard, Victoria L.; Butlin, Roger K. // Population Ecology; Dec2002, Vol. 44 Issue 3, p0137 

    Although there are several well-established hypotheses for the origins of postmating isolation during allopatric divergence, there have been very few attempts to determine their relative importance in nature. We have developed an approach based on knowledge of the differing evolutionary...

  • Antitropicality of Pacific Fishes: Molecular Insights.
    Burridge, Christopher P. // Environmental Biology of Fishes; Oct2002, Vol. 65 Issue 2, p151 

    Twenty-one molecular genetic studies of thirteen antitropical Pacific fishes are herein reviewed. High dispersal potentials and Plio-Pleistocene transequatorial divergence are suggested for approximately half of the taxa studied, consistent with movement across the tropics during glacial...

  • Estimating Divergence Times in Large Phylogenetic Trees.
    Britton, Tom; Anderson, Cajsa Lisa; Jacquet, David; Lundqvist, Samuel; Bremer, K�re // Systematic Biology; Oct2007, Vol. 56 Issue 5, p741 

    A new method, PATHd8, for estimating ultrametric trees from trees with edge (branch) lengths proportional to the number of substitutions is proposed. The method allows for an arbitrary number of reference nodes for time calibration, each defined either as absolute age, minimum age, or maximum...

  • Accounting for Solvent Accessibility and Secondary Structure in Protein Phylogenetics Is Clearly Beneficial.
    SI QUANG LE; GASCUEL, OLIVIER // Systematic Biology; May2010, Vol. 59 Issue 3, p277 

    Amino acid substitution models are essential to most methods to infer phylogenies from protein data. These models represent the ways in which proteins evolve and substitutions accumulate along the course of time. It is widely accepted that the substitution processes vary depending on the...

  • Accommodating Heterogenous Rates of Evolution in Molecular Divergence Dating Methods: An Example Using Intercontinental Dispersal of Plestiodon (Eumeces) Lizards.
    BRANDLEY, MATTHEW C.; YUEZHAO WANG; XIANGUANG GUO; NIETO MONTES DE OCA, ADR�A N.; FER�A-ORT�Z, MANUEL; HIKIDA, TSUTOMU; OTA, HIDETOSHI // Systematic Biology; Jan2011, Vol. 60 Issue 1, p3 

    Identifying and dating historical biological events is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology, and recent analytical advances permit the modeling of factors known to affect both the accuracy and the precision of molecular date estimates. As the use of multilocus data sets becomes...

  • Fitness Landscapes in Individual-Based Simulation Models of Adaptive Radiation.
    Paperin, Greg; Green, David; Dorin, Alan // AIP Conference Proceedings; 11/2/2007, Vol. 952 Issue 1, p268 

    We provide a brief overview of the use of FLs in evolutionary biology and introduce an FL model suitable for individual-based models of species evolution. Our model combines different features of several analytic FL models used in evolutionary biology. Our new model overcomes several...

  • Maximum tree: a consistent estimator of the species tree.
    Liang Liu; Yu, Lili; Pearl, Dennis K. // Journal of Mathematical Biology; Jan2010, Vol. 60 Issue 1, p95 

    We propose a model based approach to use multiple gene trees to estimate the species tree. The coalescent process requires that gene divergences occur earlier than species divergences when there is any polymorphism in the ancestral species. Under this scenario, speciation times are restricted to...

  • An irregular complex valued solution to a scalar uniformly elliptic equation.
    Frehse, Jens // Calculus of Variations & Partial Differential Equations; Nov2008, Vol. 33 Issue 3, p263 

    We present an irregular weak solution $${u : \mathbb {R}^n \to \mathbb {C}}$$ of a uniformly elliptic scalar equation in divergence form with measurable coefficients. The solution has a square integrable gradient. Such examples have been known for dimension n = 5 only.

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