## Citations with the tag: DIVERGENCE (Biology)

### Results 151 - 200

• Diversity of the Troponin C Genes during Chordate Evolution1.
Yuasa, Hajime J.; Cox, Jos A.; Takagi, Takashi // Journal of Biochemistry; 1998, Vol. 123 Issue 6, p1180

To elucidate the diversity of troponin C (TnC) during chordate evolution, we determined the organization of TnCs from the amphioxus, the lamprey, and the frog. Like the ascidian, the amphioxus possesses a single gene of TnC, and the fundamental gene structure is identical with the ascidian TnC....

• The genomic landscape of species divergence in Ficedula flycatchers.
Ellegren, Hans; Smeds, Linnéa; Burri, Reto; Olason, Pall I.; Backström, Niclas; Kawakami, Takeshi; Künstner, Axel; Mäkinen, Hannu; Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Qvarnström, Anna; Uebbing, Severin; Wolf, Jochen B. W. // Nature; 11/29/2012, Vol. 491 Issue 7426, p756

Unravelling the genomic landscape of divergence between lineages is key to understanding speciation. The naturally hybridizing collared flycatcher and pied flycatcher are important avian speciation models that show pre- as well as postzygotic isolation. We sequenced and assembled the 1.1-Gb...

• Repeated Lake-Stream Divergence in Stickleback Life History within a Central European Lake Basin.
Moser, Dario; Roesti, Marius; Berner, Daniel // PLoS ONE; Dec2012, Vol. 7 Issue 12, p1

Life history divergence between populations inhabiting ecologically distinct habitats might be a potent source of reproductive isolation, but has received little attention in the context of speciation. We here test for life history divergence between threespine stickleback inhabiting Lake...

• Dynamic evolution of mir-17-92 gene cluster and related miRNA gene families in vertebrates.
Guo, Li; Yang, Sheng; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Qian; Chen, Feng // Molecular Biology Reports; Apr2013, Vol. 40 Issue 4, p3147

mir-17-92 gene cluster is widely distributed in vertebrates and plays an important role in regulating multiple biological processes. Its dysregulation may be associated with risk of some human cancers. The microRNA (miRNA) members are identified in the three gene families: mir-17, mir-19 and...

• Zoogeography of Intertidal Communities in the West Indian Ocean as Determined by Ocean Circulation Systems: Patterns from the Tetraclita Barnacles.
Ling Ming Tsang; Yair Achituv; Ka Hou Chu; Benny Kwok Kan Chan; Senjie Lin // PLoS ONE; Sep2012, Vol. 7 Issue 9, Special section p1

The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the...

• Morphological variability of the Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni) in the Central Balkans.
LJUBISAVLJEVIĆ, KATARINA; DŽUKIĆ, GEORG; VUKOV, TANJA D.; KALEZIĆ, MILOŠ L. // Acta Herpetologica; Dec2012, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p253

Variation in a number of morphological characters were analysed in five populations of Testudo hermanni from Serbia and Montenegro. Tortoises from Serbia appeared significantly larger than those from Montenegro. An insular population of Montenegro was distinct due to its extremely small body...

• Phylogeography and diversification history of the day-gecko genus Phelsuma in the Seychelles islands.
Rocha, Sara; Posada, David; Harris, D. James // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2013, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p1

Background: Lying in a shallow continental shelf cyclically affected by oscillating sea levels since the Miocene, the Seychelles islands are particularly interesting for evolutionary studies. Recent molecular studies are generating an emerging picture of the origin of its biota, yet very little...

• Parallel reduction in expression, but no loss of functional constraint, in two opsin paralogs within cave populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda).
Carlini, David B.; Satish, Suma; Fong, Daniel W. // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2013, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p1

Background: Gammarus minus, a freshwater amphipod living in the cave and surface streams in the eastern USA, is a premier candidate for studying the evolution of troglomorphic traits such as pigmentation loss, elongated appendages, and reduced eyes. In G. minus, multiple pairs of genetically...

• Short and long-term genome stability analysis of prokaryotic genomes.
Brilli, Matteo; Liò, Pietro; Lacroix, Vincent; Sagot, Marie-France // BMC Genomics; 2013, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p1

Background: Gene organization dynamics is actively studied because it provides useful evolutionary information, makes functional annotation easier and often enables to characterize pathogens. There is therefore a strong interest in understanding the variability of this trait and the possible...

• Cancer metabolism: Metabolic silencing.
Aranda, Victoria // Nature Medicine; Aug2013, Vol. 19 Issue 8, p980

The article focuses on a study which found a methylation patterns of epigenomic divergence between succinate dehydrogenase- (SDH) deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTS) and SDH-proficient GISTS.

• A systematic evaluation of hybridization-based mouse exome capture system.
Gao, Qingsong; Wei Sun; Xintian You; Froehler, Sebastian; Wei Chen // BMC Genomics; 2013, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p1

Background: Exome sequencing is increasingly used to search for phenotypically-relevant sequence variants in the mouse genome. All of the current hybridization-based mouse exome capture systems are designed based on the genome reference sequences of the C57BL/6 J strain. Given that the...

• Studying the Moisture Flux over South and Southwest of Iran: A Case Study from December 10 to 13, 1995 Rain Storm.
Roshani, Ahmad; Parak, Fateme; Hejazizade, Zahra; Ghaemi, Hooshang // Earth Science Research; Aug2013, Vol. 2 Issue 2, p34

During December 10-13, 1995 a destructive flood occurred over the south part of Iran resulting from the intensive rainfall causing the social and economical damages over that area. This study intends to reveal the main moisture source flux which feeds in the rain fall weather system. The...

• Sexual Shape Dimorphism in Tuatara.
Herrel, Anthony; Schaerlaeken, Vicky; Moravec, Jiří; Ross, Callum F. // Copeia; Dec2009, Vol. 2009 Issue 4, p727

The tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus, is known to exhibit a male-biased sexual size dimorphism, often attributed to the territorial behavior of males. Our data based on preserved specimens from museum collections also show a previously undocumented dimorphism in head and limb shape in Sphenodon,...

• Reproductive asynchrony and population divergence between two tropical bird populations.
Ignacio T. Moore; Frances Bonier; John C. Wingfield // Behavioral Ecology; Jul2005, Vol. 16 Issue 4, p755

High-latitude vertebrates generally breed seasonally and synchronously as the primary environmental cue used to time seasonal processes is photoperiod. Investigations of tropical vertebrates have also documented seasonal reproduction, but it is unclear how synchronous reproduction is, both...

• Evolution of the Correlation between Expression Divergence and Protein Divergence in Mammals.
Warnefors, Maria; Kaessmann, Henrik // Genome Biology & Evolution; Jul2013, Vol. 5 Issue 7, p1324

Divergence of protein sequences and gene expression patterns are two fundamental mechanisms that generate organismal diversity. Here, we have used genome and transcriptome data from eight mammals and one bird to study the positive correlation of these two processes throughout mammalian...

• Evolutionary Dynamics of Retrotransposons Assessed by High-Throughput Sequencing in Wild Relatives of Wheat.
Senerchia, Natacha; Wicker, Thomas; Felber, François; Parisod, Christian // Genome Biology & Evolution; May2013, Vol. 5 Issue 5, p1010

Transposable elements (TEs) represent a major fraction of plant genomes and drive their evolution. An improved understanding of genome evolution requires the dynamics of a large number of TE families to be considered. We put forward an approach bypassing the required step of a complete reference...

• Community Genetics Reveal Elevated Levels of Sympatric Gene Flow among Morphologically Similar but Not among Morphologically Dissimilar Species of Lake Victoria Cichlid Fish.
Konijnendijk, N.; Joyce, D. A.; Mrosso, H. D. J.; Egas, M.; Seehausen, O. // International Journal of Evolutionary Biology; 2011, Vol. 2011, p1

We examined genetic structure among five species of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlids in four island communities, using a full factorial sampling design that compared genetic differentiation between pairs of species and populations of varying morphological similarity and geographical...

• Consequences of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation for the performance of two planthoppers with divergent life-history strategies.
Huberty, Andrea F.; Denno, Robert F. // Oecologia; Sep2006, Vol. 149 Issue 3, p444

Phytophagous insects have a much higher nitrogen and phosphorus content than their host plants, an elemental mismatch that places inherent constraints on meeting nutritional requirements. Although nitrogen limitation is well documented in insect herbivores, phosphorus limitation is poorly...

• Transmission ratio distortion in Arabidopsis lyrata: effects of population divergence and the S-locus.
Leppälä, J.; Bechsgaard, J. S.; Schierup, M. H.; Savolainen, O. // Heredity; Jan2008, Vol. 100 Issue 1, p71

We investigated transmission ratio distortion within an Icelandic population of Arabidopsis lyrata using 16 molecular markers unlinked to the S-locus. Transmission ratio distortion was found more often than expected by chance at the gametic level, but not at the genotypic or zygotic level. The...

• Genome-wide effects of postglacial colonization in Arabidopsis lyrata.
Muller, M.-H.; Leppälä, J.; Savolainen, O. // Heredity; Jan2008, Vol. 100 Issue 1, p47

The perennial outcrossing Arabidopsis lyrata is becoming a plant model species for molecular ecology and evolution. However, its evolutionary history, and especially the impact of the climatic oscillations of the Pleistocene on its genetic diversity and population structure, is not well known....

• Recent Range Expansion and Divergence among North American Prairie Grouse.
Johnson, Jeff A. // Journal of Heredity; Mar/Apr2008, Vol. 99 Issue 2, p165

Prairie grouse (genus: Tympanuchus) once existed throughout much of North America but have recently experienced significant population declines, isolation, and extinction. In previous molecular studies, contrasting patterns or an unresolved polytomy among Tympanuchus taxa (Tympanuchus...

• A parasite calcium switch and Achilles' heel revealed.
Doerig, Christian; Billker, Oliver // Nature Structural & Molecular Biology; May2010, Vol. 17 Issue 5, p541

The article comments on research study published in the issue related to the crystal structures of the calcium-dependent protein kinase. It states that protein kinases are considered to be the major targets in fight against cancer. It states that Adenosine Trip Hosphate (ATP) bindings can be...

• The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae) and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri.
Martínez-Azorín, Mario; Crespo, Manuel B.; Dold, Anthony P.; Barker, Nigel P. // PhytoKeys; 7/27/2011, Issue 5, p5

The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin's concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in...

• Estimation of Euclidean Distance for Different Morpho-physiological Characters in Some Wild and Cultivated Rice Genotypes (Oryza sativa L.).
Hoque, M. N.; Rahman, Lutfur // Journal of Biological Sciences; 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p86

The pattern of genetic diversity and relation was studied in 2 wild and 3 cultivated rice genotypes of Bangladesh. Euclidean Distance among Jhora (Wild) 4325, Wild 4855, Dular, Hab. Aman 2 and Jagliboro was measured. Comparatively lower distance was found among Jhora 4325 and Jagliboro in...

• Adaptive Functional Divergence of the Warm Temperature Acclimation-Related Protein (WAP65) in Fishes and the Ortholog Hemopexin (HPX) in Mammals.
MACHADO, JOâO PAULO; VASCONCELOS, VITOR; ANTUNES, AGOSTINHO // Journal of Heredity; Mar/Apr2014, Vol. 105 Issue 2, p237

Gene duplication is an important mechanism that leads to genetic novelty. Different, nonexclusive processes are likely involved, and many adaptive and nonadaptive events may contribute to the maintenance of duplicated genes. In some teleosts, a duplicate copy of die mammalian ortholog Hemopexin...

• Phenotypic integration of brain size and head morphology in Lake Tanganyika Cichlids.
Tsuboi, Masahito; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, Niclas // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2014, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p1

Background Phenotypic integration among different anatomical parts of the head is a common phenomenon across vertebrates. Interestingly, despite centuries of research into the factors that contribute to the existing variation in brain size among vertebrates, little is known about the role of...

• Ancient Gene Duplicates in Gossypium (Cotton) Exhibit Near-Complete Expression Divergence.
Renny-Byfield, Simon; Gallagher, Joseph P.; Grover, Corrinne E.; Szadkowski, Emmanuel; Page, Justin T.; Udall, Joshua A.; Wang, Xiyin; Paterson, Andrew H.; Wendel, Jonathan F. // Genome Biology & Evolution; Mar2014, Vol. 6 Issue 3, p559

Whole genome duplication (WGD) is widespread in flowering plants and is a driving force in angiosperm diversification. The redundancy introduced by WGD allows the evolution of novel gene interactions and functions, although the patterns and processes of diversification are poorly understood. We...

• The impact of RNA structure on coding sequence evolution in both bacteria and eukaryotes.
Wanjun Gu; Musheng Li; Yuming Xu; Ting Wang; Jae-Hong Ko; Tong Zhou // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2014, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p1

Background Many studies have found functional RNA secondary structures are selectively conserved among species. But, the effect of RNA structure selection on coding sequence evolution remains unknown. To address this problem, we systematically investigated the relationship between nucleotide...

• Rock outcrop orchids reveal the genetic connectivity and diversity of inselbergs of northeastern Brazil.
Pinheiro, Fábio; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Draper, David; de Barros, Fábio; Félix, Leonardo P.; Fay, Michael F.; Palma-Silva, Clarisse // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2014, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p1

Background: Because of their fragmented nature, inselberg species are interesting biological models for studying the genetic consequences of disjoint populations. Inselbergs are commonly compared with oceanic islands, as most of them display a marked ecological isolation from the surrounding...

• Dating the time of viral subtype divergence.
O'Brien, John D.; Zhen-Su She; Suchard, Marc A. // BMC Evolutionary Biology; 2008, Vol. 8, Special section p1

Precise dating of viral subtype divergence enables researchers to correlate divergence with geographic and demographic occurrences. When historical data are absent (that is, the overwhelming majority), viral sequence sampling on a time scale commensurate with the rate of substitution permits the...

• molecular clock (1967) Biology.
O'Brien, John D.; Zhen-Su She; Suchard, Marc A. // Dictionary of Theories; 2002, p349

Information on the theory of molecular clock is presented. The theory states that the rate of accumulation of genetic difference between two species is approximately proportional to the evolutionary time that has passed since the species diverged. The studies suggest that the divergence occurred...

• Laser Transmission Holograms Maximum Permissible Exposure.
Dawson, Paula; Wilksch, P. A. // AIP Conference Proceedings; 5/31/2010, Vol. 1226 Issue 1, p147

The laser illumination of holograms for public display is governed by international standard IEC 60825-3, to which the Australian Standard AS/NZS 2211.3 conforms. These standards do not accommodate vital mitigating factors of hologram replay that impinge on the level of laser power i.e. angle of...

• Systematics of the North American menhadens: molecular evolutionary reconstructions in the genus Brevoortia (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae).
Anderson, Joel D. // Fishery Bulletin; Jul2007, Vol. 105 Issue 3, p368

Evolutionary associations among the four North American species of menhadens (Brevoortia spp.) have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, classifications separating the four species into small-scaled and large-scaled groups were evaluated by using DNA data, and genetic...

• Molecular phylogeny of Alnus (Betulaceae), inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences.
Navarro, Elisabeth; Bousquet, Jean; Moiroud, Andr�; Munive, Antonio; Piou, Dominique; Normand, Philippe // Plant & Soil; Jul2003, Vol. 254 Issue 1, p207

The nuclear ITS region of 19 species of Alnus was amplified and sequenced. The inferred molecular phylogeny shows that all species of the genus Alnus form a monophyletic group close to Betula and that the fundamental dichotomy within the genus lies between the subgenera Alnaster and...

• Evolution of Dystaenia takesimana (Apiaceae), endemic to Ullung Island, Korea.
Pfosser, M.; Jakubowsky, G.; Schl�ter, P.; Fer, T.; Kato, H.; Stuessy, T.; Sun, B.-Y. // Plant Systematics & Evolution; Nov2005, Vol. 256 Issue 1-4, p159

Dystaenia (Apiaceae) consists of two species, one distributed in Japan ( D. ibukiensis), and the other endemic to Ullung Island, Korea ( D. takesimana). In comparison with representative outgroup taxa in Ligusticum, Seseli, Angelica, and Osmorhiza, Dystaenia is shown to be monophyletic based on...

• Normapolles plants: a prominent component of the Cretaceous rosid diversification.
Friis, E.; Pedersen, K.; Sch�nenberger, J. // Plant Systematics & Evolution; Sep2006, Vol. 260 Issue 2-4, p107

The Normapolles complex, characterised by its oblate and triaperturate pollen, constitutes an important and diverse element of many Late Cretaceous and Early Cainozoic floras of the Northern Hemisphere. Based on the dispersed pollen record alone it has been difficult to assess systematic...

• Genetic structure of peripheral, island-like populations: a case study of Saponaria bellidifolia Sm. (Caryophyllaceae) from the Southeastern Carpathians.
Cserg�, Anna-M�ria; Sch�nswetter, Peter; Mara, Gy�ngyv�r; De�k, Tam�s; Boscaiu, Nicolae; H�hn, M�ria // Plant Systematics & Evolution; Mar2009, Vol. 278 Issue 1/2, p33

Geographically peripheral populations often experience a reduction of genetic diversity and divergence from the core populations. Habitat geometry and quality can induce a local genetic diversity pattern, which overlies the regional variability issued from the range-wide phylogeography. We...

• Genetic Structure in Contemporary South Tyrolean Isolated Populations Revealed by Analysis of Y-Chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu Polymorphisms.
Pichler, Irene; Mueller, Jakob C.; Stefanov, Stefan A.; de Grandi, Alessandro; Volpato, Claudia Beu; Pinggera, Gerd K.; Mayr, Agnes; Ogriseg, Martin; Ploner, Franz; Meitinger, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter P. // Human Biology; Aug2006, Vol. 78 Issue 4, p441

Most of the inhabitants of South Tyrol in the eastern Italian Alps can be considered isolated populations because of their physical separation by mountain barriers and their sociocultural heritage. We analyzed the genetic structure of South Tyrolean populations using three types of genetic...

• Prevalence of monochloroacetate degrading genotypes among soil isolates of Pseudomonas sp.
Kocabiyik, Semra; Caba, Ebru // Biodegradation; 1998, Vol. 8 Issue 6, p371

This study reports the isolation of Pseudomonas sp. strains with monochloroacetate (MCA) degradation function, from uncontaminated soil, and the use of Southern blot hybridization technique to detect MCA degrading catabolic genes and their divergence. Based on their capacity to remove Cl- from...

• An outline of the theory of the genetic divergence of dry-land and bog populations of Pinus sylvestris L.
Sannikov, S.; Petrova, I. // Russian Journal of Ecology; Sep2010, Vol. 41 Issue 5, p393

The thesis of the genetic divergence of Pinus sylvestris L. populations that have spread to bogs from the original dry-land populations has been deduced from the concept of the cyclicity of helio- and geophysical processes, derivative postulates on climatic cycles, formation of Holocene high...

• Late ontogeny growth acceleration and size form transformations in Transbaikalian Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus complex: evidence from fin ray cross section growth layers.
Alekseyev, Sergey; Mina, Mikhail; Smirina, Ella; Sokolov, Aleksey // Environmental Biology of Fishes; Dec2009, Vol. 86 Issue 4, p487

In some polymorphic populations of Arctic charr in Transbaikalia, an individual can transform from a smaller to larger size form during their lifetime as a result of accelerated growth that follows a period of slow growth and reproduction as a small size form. Alternating periods of slow and...

• Ecological diversity and speciation in land snails of the genus Mandarina from the Bonin Islands.
Chiba, Satoshi // Population Ecology; Dec2002, Vol. 44 Issue 3, p0179

Endemic land snails of the genus Mandarina of the oceanic Bonin Islands offer an example of habitat and character divergence among closely related species. The molecular phylogenies of Mandarina show that a divergence of arboreal, semiarboreal, and ground-dwelling species has occurred repeatedly...

• The origins of postmating reproductive isolation: testing hypotheses in the grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus.
Tregenza, Tom; Pritchard, Victoria L.; Butlin, Roger K. // Population Ecology; Dec2002, Vol. 44 Issue 3, p0137

Although there are several well-established hypotheses for the origins of postmating isolation during allopatric divergence, there have been very few attempts to determine their relative importance in nature. We have developed an approach based on knowledge of the differing evolutionary...

• Antitropicality of Pacific Fishes: Molecular Insights.
Burridge, Christopher P. // Environmental Biology of Fishes; Oct2002, Vol. 65 Issue 2, p151

Twenty-one molecular genetic studies of thirteen antitropical Pacific fishes are herein reviewed. High dispersal potentials and Plio-Pleistocene transequatorial divergence are suggested for approximately half of the taxa studied, consistent with movement across the tropics during glacial...

• Estimating Divergence Times in Large Phylogenetic Trees.
Britton, Tom; Anderson, Cajsa Lisa; Jacquet, David; Lundqvist, Samuel; Bremer, K�re // Systematic Biology; Oct2007, Vol. 56 Issue 5, p741

A new method, PATHd8, for estimating ultrametric trees from trees with edge (branch) lengths proportional to the number of substitutions is proposed. The method allows for an arbitrary number of reference nodes for time calibration, each defined either as absolute age, minimum age, or maximum...

• Accounting for Solvent Accessibility and Secondary Structure in Protein Phylogenetics Is Clearly Beneficial.
SI QUANG LE; GASCUEL, OLIVIER // Systematic Biology; May2010, Vol. 59 Issue 3, p277

Amino acid substitution models are essential to most methods to infer phylogenies from protein data. These models represent the ways in which proteins evolve and substitutions accumulate along the course of time. It is widely accepted that the substitution processes vary depending on the...

• Accommodating Heterogenous Rates of Evolution in Molecular Divergence Dating Methods: An Example Using Intercontinental Dispersal of Plestiodon (Eumeces) Lizards.
BRANDLEY, MATTHEW C.; YUEZHAO WANG; XIANGUANG GUO; NIETO MONTES DE OCA, ADR�A N.; FER�A-ORT�Z, MANUEL; HIKIDA, TSUTOMU; OTA, HIDETOSHI // Systematic Biology; Jan2011, Vol. 60 Issue 1, p3

Identifying and dating historical biological events is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology, and recent analytical advances permit the modeling of factors known to affect both the accuracy and the precision of molecular date estimates. As the use of multilocus data sets becomes...

• Fitness Landscapes in Individual-Based Simulation Models of Adaptive Radiation.
Paperin, Greg; Green, David; Dorin, Alan // AIP Conference Proceedings; 11/2/2007, Vol. 952 Issue 1, p268

We provide a brief overview of the use of FLs in evolutionary biology and introduce an FL model suitable for individual-based models of species evolution. Our model combines different features of several analytic FL models used in evolutionary biology. Our new model overcomes several...

• Maximum tree: a consistent estimator of the species tree.
Liang Liu; Yu, Lili; Pearl, Dennis K. // Journal of Mathematical Biology; Jan2010, Vol. 60 Issue 1, p95

We propose a model based approach to use multiple gene trees to estimate the species tree. The coalescent process requires that gene divergences occur earlier than species divergences when there is any polymorphism in the ancestral species. Under this scenario, speciation times are restricted to...

• An irregular complex valued solution to a scalar uniformly elliptic equation.
Frehse, Jens // Calculus of Variations & Partial Differential Equations; Nov2008, Vol. 33 Issue 3, p263

We present an irregular weak solution $${u : \mathbb {R}^n \to \mathbb {C}}$$ of a uniformly elliptic scalar equation in divergence form with measurable coefficients. The solution has a square integrable gradient. Such examples have been known for dimension n = 5 only.

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