A signal-switch hypothesis for cross-regulation of cytokine and TLR signalling pathways

Ivashkiv, Lionel B.
October 2008
Nature Reviews Immunology;Oct2008, Vol. 8 Issue 10, p816
Academic Journal
The importance of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled receptors in modulating signalling pathways downstream of other types of receptor is well established, but the mechanisms underlying this modulation are not known. Recent data suggest that calcium-dependent signalling downstream of ITAM-coupled receptors regulates the amplitude and functional outcomes of cytokine and TLR signalling. In this Opinion article, I describe a model whereby the intensity of ITAM-dependent signalling and the balance of calcium signals relative to other ITAM-mediated signalling pathways determines whether cellular responses to cytokines and TLR ligands are increased or inhibited. This model describes mechanisms that explain how ITAM-coupled receptors regulate heterologous signalling pathways.


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