Ford, John R.; Clarke III, Irvine
July 2001
AMA Winter Educators' Conference Proceedings;2001, Vol. 12, p45
Conference Proceeding
Research into the perceptions of men and women regarding their sex role portrayals in advertising has been an active focus for research efforts since the early 1970s. Until recently, most of the empirical research in this area has centered on the United States. One of the first major studies to raise the question of gender portrayal inequalities was that of Coortney and Lockeretz in 1971, which found that American advertisements did not depict men and women in an evenhanded manner. In fact, the authors found a heavy use of female stereotyping (i.e., the woman belonging in the home, women not being in a position to make important decisions, women being seen by men as "sex objects," and women being viewed as dependent upon men). A seminal response study by Lundstrom and Sciglimpaglia (1977) found that women were not happy about these portrayal disparities and were critical of the advertisers using ads seen as "offensive." Studies in the 1990s have indicated that women are still not happy with their portrayals in American advertisements fiord, LaTour, and Lundstrom 1991; Ford and LaTour 1996, 1993). Ortner (1974) suggested that the subordination of females to males may be a universal phenomenon. Studies by Sullivan and O'Connor (1988) and Green et al. (1983) developed a typology of international societal sex role development which extends from patriarchal societies (e.g., Thailand) to egalitarian socicties (e.g., Scandinavia). Based upon this typology it is reasonable, therefore, to assume that perceived role disparities exist cross-culturally. Ford et al. (1994a) attempted to demonstrate perceptual differences among adult women respondents from culturally-distinct cultures (New Zealand, the United States, and Thailand). This study found support for the proposed sex role typology. The authors found that mall intercept respondents from New Zealand were more critical of their role portrayals than those from the U.S., who were more critical than their counterparts...


Related Articles

  • Shocking Ads! Do They Work? Manchanda, Rajesh V.; Dahl, Darren W.; Frankenberger, Kristina D. // Advances in Consumer Research;2002, Vol. 29 Issue 1, p230 

    Investigates the effectiveness of shocking advertisements contents in the context of a public service message that advocates condom use for the prevention of HIV and AIDS. Enhancement in cognitive processing results from shock appeals; Negative effects of shocking advertisements content.

  • Depicting Romantic Couples in Advertising: The Roles of Gender and Race on Audience Perceptions. Callow, Michael; McMellon, Charles; Lerman, Dawn; Luna, David // Advances in Consumer Research - European Conference Proceedings;2006, Vol. 7, p153 

    An abstract of the study "Depicting Romantic Couples in Advertising: The Roles of Gender and Race on Audience Perceptions," by Michael Callow, Charles McMellon, Dawn Lerman and David Luna, is presented.

  • MARKETING COMMUNICATION RECEIVERS' PERCEPTIONS OF SOURCE-SELF SIMILARITY: SOME NEW FINDINGS. Graham, Judy F. // Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice;Fall94, Vol. 2 Issue 4, p11 

    Discusses the effects of an advertising source sex and the sex role orientation to the receiver's perception of source-self similarity. Factors affecting source-self similarity perceptions; Use of different cues by advertising receivers in assessing an advertising source's similarity to self;...

  • "When Women Lead, Do Consumers' Perceptions of Her Firm Follow?". Folkes, Valerie; Matta, Shashi // Advances in Consumer Research;2007, Vol. 34, p648 

    An abstract for the article "When Women Lead, Do Consumers' Perceptions of Her Firm Follow?" by Shashi Matta and Valerie Folkes is presented.

  • Five Fallacies About Women. Stearns, Betty Jane // Journal of Marketing;Jul1961, Vol. 25 Issue 5, p50 

    The article discusses common misconceptions regarding the position of marketing to products or services towards women. The misconceptions include that fashion and sex are reliable approaches for marketing nonfeminine products toward women, and that all women communicate the same about subjects...

  • Gender Differences in the Use of Message Cues and Judgments. Meyers-Levy, Joan; Sternthal, Brian // Journal of Marketing Research (JMR);Feb1991, Vol. 28 Issue 1, p84 

    Data from two experiments suggest that the genders differ in how they make judgments. In comparison with men, women appeared to have a lower threshold for elaborating on message cues and thus made greater use of such cues in judging products. These differences were eliminated both when the...

  • Selected Effects of Salesperson Sex and Attractiveness in Direct Mail Advertisements. Caballero, Marjorie J.; Pride, William M. // Journal of Marketing;Winter84, Vol. 48 Issue 1, p94 

    This study assesses whether sex and attractiveness of a sales representative used in a direct mail advertisement or the sex of the receiver of that advertisement influences the receiver's decision to purchase the advertised product. The results indicate that receivers of a control treatment (no...

  • Sex, Lies, and Videotape: An Analysis of Gender in Campaign Advertisements. Robertson, Terry; Froemling, Kristin // Communication Quarterly;Summer99, Vol. 47 Issue 3, p333 

    Examines the role of gender on political campaign advertisements in the United States. Comparison of the campaign advertising styles between male and female politicians; Use of education and family issues as theme in the advertisements of female candidates; Differences in the likelihood of...

  • Humanistic Advertising? Foy, Richard // Humanist;Jul/Aug88, Vol. 48 Issue 4, p49 

    Presents a letter to the editor expressing agreement with the Rachel M. Lauer in her article "Evaluating Sex in Advertising" in the May/June 1988 issue.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics