TITLE

Eye movement desensitisation treatment utilises the positive visceral element of the investigatory reflex to inhibit the memories of post-traumatic stress disorder: a theoretical analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Macculloch, Malcolm J.; Feldman, Philip; MacCulloch, M J; Feldman, P
PUB. DATE
November 1996
SOURCE
British Journal of Psychiatry;Nov96, Vol. 169, p571
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
journal article
ABSTRACT
Background: Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) has attracted controversy and has led to publications covering a wide range of psychological problems treated by EMDR, in particular, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is growing clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDR, but a lack of a convincing theoretical basis to explain its rapid effect.Method: This paper argues that a combination of Pavlovian and Darwinian theory provide a theoretical explanation for the therapeutic effectiveness of EMDR.Results: We suggest that the investigatory component of the orienting reflex is an evolutionary development enabling organisms to assess their environment for both opportunities and threats. We propose that EMDR is rapidly effective because it is a clinical method of Pavlovian conditioning by which the positive visceral element of the investigatory reflex can be paired with clinically-induced noxious memories to remove their negative affect.Conclusion: Compared with established forms of treatment for PTSD, EMDR is rapid, with resulting clinical and economic benefits. Our suggested theoretical basis for EMDR has implications for further explanatory research and for developments in EMDR treatment.
ACCESSION #
25174118

 

Related Articles

  • Eye-movement desensitisation to overcome post-traumatic stress disorder. Spector, John; Huthwaite, Mark; Spector, J; Huthwaite, M // British Journal of Psychiatry;Jul93, Vol. 163, p106 

    A new treatment using a saccadic eye-movement desensitisation (EMD) procedure has recently been introduced to treat post-traumatic stress disorder, a disorder that has been difficult to treat in the past. The treatment is claimed to be very rapid and successful. This paper reports the treatment...

  • Eye-movement desensitisation. Symptom change in post-traumatic stress disorder. Vaughan, K.; Wiese, M.; Gold, R.; Tarrier, N. // British Journal of Psychiatry;Apr94, Vol. 164, p533 

    A novel approach is described for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Eye-movement desensitisation (EMD) requires the patient to generate images of the trauma in the mind and define physiological and emotional arousal states. While concentrating on these states, lateral...

  • Early predictors of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder in assault survivors. Kleim, Birgit; Ehlers, Anke; Glucksman, Edward // Psychological Medicine;Oct2007, Vol. 37 Issue 10, p1457 

    Background. Some studies suggest that early psychological treatment is effective in preventing chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is as yet unclear how best to identify trauma survivors who need such intervention. This prospective longitudinal study investigated the prognostic...

  • Exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder. Four case studies. Richards, David A.; Rose, John S.; Richards, D A; Rose, J S // British Journal of Psychiatry;Jun91, Vol. 158, p836 

    Four cases of PTSD, and their treatment, are described. Symptoms responded differently to two behavioural approaches. In-vivo exposure was effective for phobic anxiety while imaginal exposure improved dysphoria and some phobic symptoms. Audio-taped imaginal exposure may be important as part of...

  • Efficacy of Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Patients with Posttraumatic-Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Chen, Ying-Ren; Hung, Kuo-Wei; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Chu, Hsin; Chung, Min-Huey; Chen, Su-Ru; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chou, Kuei-Ru // PLoS ONE;Aug2014, Vol. 9 Issue 8, p1 

    Background: We performed the first meta-analysis of clinical studies by investigating the effects of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy on the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients treated during...

  • Critical perspectives on research on post-traumatic stress disorder and implications for the South African context. Edwards, David // Journal of Psychology in Africa;2005, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p117 

    This article introduces a special issue of the Journal of Psychology in Africa on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Africa and particularly in South Africa and examines the critical debate that has surrounded PTSD research. It begins with an examination of the meaning of the term trauma,...

  • Regionalism and the Difficulties of Diagnosis. Rasyidi, Ernest // Psychiatric Annals;Aug2011, Vol. 41 Issue 8, p416 

    The article discusses regionalism in psychiatry. According to the author, the establishment of a uniform stand would omit less recognized concept and theories. He cites that complex posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) is one of the non-DSM included diagnosis that carries potential use for...

  • Usefulness and validity of post-traumatic stress disorder as a psychiatric category. Mezey, Gillian; Robbins,, Ian // BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition);9/8/2001, Vol. 323 Issue 7312, p561 

    Argues that the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder is valid and important for both patients and doctors. Social aspects of psychiatric conditions; Purpose of a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder, including deflecting blame away from the sufferer; Validity of the diagnosis for...

  • Altered oscillatory brain dynamics after repeated traumatic stress. Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Wienbruch, Christian; Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Maggie; Ruf, Martina; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas // BMC Psychiatry;2007, Vol. 7, p56 

    Background: Repeated traumatic experiences, e.g. torture and war, lead to functional and structural cerebral changes, which should be detectable in cortical dynamics. Abnormal slow waves produced within circumscribed brain regions during a resting state have been associated with lesioned neural...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics