Oxidative damage in an experimentally induced gastric and gastroduodenal reflux model

Erbil, Yesim; Türkoḡlu, Umit; Barbaros, Umut; Balik, Emre; Olgac, Vakur; Kaya, Hakan; Cimşit, Bayindir; Türkoglu, Umit; Cimşit, Bayindir
September 2005
Surgical Innovation;Sep2005, Vol. 12 Issue 3, p219
Academic Journal
journal article
The exact pathophysiologic mechanisms of esophageal cell damage and carcinogenesis by gastroesophageal reflux are not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the damage to the esophageal epithelium that occurs after acid reflex and mixed acid and bile reflux by assessing histopathology, reactive oxygen species, and DNA damage. Eighty 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups, an acid reflux group and a mixed (acid/bile) reflux group. Acid reflux was achieved by esophagogastroplasty in which mixed reflux was encouraged via esophagoduodenal anastomosis. Each group contained a control subgroup that underwent sham laparotomy alone. The rats were killed 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl content, and DNA damage were determined in lymphocytes. Histopathologic analysis was performed according to the histologic activity index. Inflammation, ulcer, and regeneration in both reflux groups were significantly increased in the esophagus at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months compared with the control group. Mucosal damage was greater in the mixed reflux group compared with the gastric reflux group. Malondialdehyde and carbonyl content in the serum, and DNA damage in lymphocytes, were significantly increased in both reflux groups. At 9 and 12 months, oxidative damage was increased in the mixed reflux group compared with the acid reflux group. Oxygen-derived free radicals seem to be one of the important mediators in the evaluation and generation of reflux esophagitis. The impact of oxygen free radicals, as demonstrated in this study, can be evaluated by assessing the damage that they incur to lipid membranes, serum proteins, and circulating lymphocyte DNA. Serum malondialdehyde and carbonyl content as well as lymphocyte DNA damage were significantly increased in the setting of acid and mixed acid/bile reflux in these rodent models. Further, these serum and lymphocytic changes were associated with esophageal ulceration, inflammation, and regeneration. Evaluation of such markers as serum malondialdehyde and carbonyl content as well as evaluation of lymphocyte DNA might prove to be useful investigations in patients with precancerous and cancerous conditions in addition to conventional methods of diagnosis. Further studies, both animal and human are warranted.


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