Dosimetric evaluation of synthetic CT relative to bulk density assignment-based magnetic resonance-only approaches for prostate radiotherapy

Kim, Joshua; Garbarino, Kim; Schultz, Lonni; Levin, Kenneth; Movsas, Benjamin; Siddiqui, M. Salim; Chetty, Indrin J.; Glide-Hurst, Carri
November 2015
Radiation Oncology;11/24/2015, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p1
Academic Journal
journal article
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been incorporated as an adjunct to CT to take advantage of its excellent soft tissue contrast for contouring. MR-only treatment planning approaches have been developed to avoid errors introduced during the MR-CT registration process. The purpose of this study is to evaluate calculated dose distributions after incorporating a novel synthetic CT (synCT) derived from magnetic resonance simulation images into prostate cancer treatment planning and to compare dose distributions calculated using three previously published MR-only treatment planning methodologies.Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective study evaluated 15 prostate cancer patients that underwent IMRT (n = 11) or arc therapy (n = 4) to a total dose of 70.2-79.2 Gy. Original treatment plans were derived from CT simulation images (CT-SIM). T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and balanced turbo field echo images were acquired on a 1.0 T high field open MR simulator with patients immobilized in treatment position. Four MR-derived images were studied: bulk density assignment (10 HU) to water (MRW), bulk density assignments to water and bone with pelvic bone values derived either from literature (491 HU, MRW+B491) or from CT-SIM population average bone values (300 HU, MRW+B300), and synCTs. Plans were recalculated using fixed monitor units, plan dosimetry was evaluated, and local dose differences were characterized using gamma analysis (1 %/1 mm dose difference/distance to agreement).Results: While synCT provided closest agreement to CT-SIM for D95, D99, and mean dose (<0.7 Gy (1 %)) compared to MRW, MRW+B491, and MRW+B300, pairwise comparisons showed differences were not significant (p < 0.05). Significant improvements were observed for synCT in the bladder, but not for rectum or penile bulb. SynCT gamma analysis pass rates (97.2 %) evaluated at 1 %/1 mm exceeded those from MRW (94.7 %), MRW+B300 (94.0 %), or MRW+B491 (90.4 %). One subject's synCT gamma (1 %/1 mm) results (89.9 %) were lower than MRW (98.7 %) and MRW+B300 (96.7 %) due to increased rectal gas during MR-simulation that did not affect bulk density assignment-based calculations but was reflected in higher rectal doses for synCT.Conclusions: SynCT values provided closest dosimetric and gamma analysis agreement to CT-SIM compared to bulk density assignment-based CT surrogates. SynCTs may provide additional clinical value in treatment sites with greater air-to-soft tissue ratio.


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