Invasive front of colorectal cancer: Dynamic interface of pro-/anti-tumor factors

Zlobec, Inti; Lugli, Alessandro; Bebenek, Marek
December 2009
World Journal of Gastroenterology;12/21/2009, Vol. 15 Issue 47, p5898
Academic Journal
Tumor-host interaction at the invasive front of colorectal cancer represents a critical interface encompassing a dynamic process of de-differentiation of colorectal carcinoma cells known as epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT can be identified histologically by the presence of "tumor budding", a feature which can be highly specific for tumors showing an infiltrating tumor growth pattern. Importantly, tumor budding and tumor border configuration have generated considerable interest as additional prognostic factors and are also recognized as such by the International Union Against Cancer. Evidence seems to suggest that the presence of tumor budding or an infiltrating growth pattern is inversely correlated with the presence of immune and inflammatory responses at the invasive tumor front. In fact, several tumor-associated antigens such as CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, Granzyme B, FOXP3 and other immunological or inflammatory cell types have been identified as potentially prognostic in patients with this disease. Evidence seems to suggest that the balance between pro-tumor (including budding and infiltrating growth pattern) and anti-tumor (immune response or certain inflammatory cell types) factors at the invasive front of colorectal cancer may be decisive in determining tumor progression and the clinical outcome of patients with colorectal cancer. On one hand, the infiltrating tumor border configuration and tumor budding promote progression and dissemination of tumor cells by penetrating the vascular and lymphatic vessels. On the other, the host attempts to fend off this attack by mounting an immune response to protect vascular and lymphatic channels from invasion by tumor buds. Whereas standard pathology reporting of breast and prostate cancer involves additional prognostic features, such as the BRE and Gleason scores, the ratio of pro- and anti-tumor factors could be a promising approach for the future development of a prognostic score for patients with colorectal cancer which could complement tumor node metastasis staging to improve the clinical management of patients with this disease.


Related Articles

  • Expression of Livin in Colorectal Cancer and Its Relationship to Tumor Cell Behavior and Prognosis. Myung, Dae-Seong; Park, Young-Lan; Chung, Cho-Yun; Park, Hyung-Chul; Kim, Jong-Sun; Cho, Sung-Bum; Lee, Wan-Sik; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Joo, Young-Eun // PLoS ONE;Sep2013, Vol. 8 Issue 9, p1 

    Backgrounds:Expression of Livin, a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, is associated with tumor development and progression. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether Livin affects oncogenic biological behavior of colorectal cancer cells, and to document the relationship...

  • Human Subperitoneal Fibroblast and Cancer Cell Interaction Creates Microenvironment That Enhances Tumor Progression and Metastasis. Kojima, Motohiro; Higuchi, Youichi; Yokota, Mitsuru; Ishii, Genichiro; Saito, Norio; Aoyagi, Kazuhiko; Sasaki, Hiroki; Ochiai, Atsushi // PLoS ONE;Feb2014, Vol. 9 Issue 2, p1 

    Backgrounds: Peritoneal invasion in colon cancer is an important prognostic factor. Peritoneal invasion can be objectively identified as periotoneal elastic laminal invasion (ELI) by using elastica stain, and the cancer microenvironment formed by the peritoneal invasion (CMPI) can also be...

  • Opposing roles of netrin-1 and the dependence receptor DCC in cancer cell invasion, tumor growth and metastasis. Rodrigues, S.; De Wever, O.; Bruyneel, E.; Rooney, R. J.; Gespach, C. // Oncogene;8/16/2007, Vol. 26 Issue 38, p5615 

    Deleted in colon cancer (DCC) and UNC5 function as netrin dependence receptors by inducing apoptosis in the absence of their ligand and accordingly were recently designated as putative conditional tumor suppressors. Herein, we determined whether netrin-1 and its receptors are implicated in...

  • Macrophages: Good guys in colorectal cancer. Edin, Sofia; Wikberg, Maria L.; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Palmqvist, Richard // OncoImmunology;Feb2013, Vol. 2 Issue 2, pe23038-1 

    Macrophages play a complex role in tumor progression since they can exert both tumor-preventing (M1 macrophages) and tumor-promoting (M2 macrophages) activities. In colorectal carcinoma (CRC), at odds to many other cancers, macrophage infiltration has been correlated with an improved patient...

  • The recent progress of the mechanism and regulation of tumor necrosis in colorectal cancer. Zhang, Xi; Chen, Lirong // Journal of Cancer Research & Clinical Oncology;Feb2016, Vol. 142 Issue 2, p453 

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), despite the complex inducing and regulating mechanism in necrosis progress, the prognostic value of tumor necrosis has been reported. It is generally recognized that necrosis is associated with many process involving severe hypoxia, inflammatory responses and...

  • The tumor border configuration of colorectal cancer as a histomorphological prognostic indicator. Koelzer, Viktor H.; Lugli, Alessandro // Frontiers in Oncology;Feb2014, Vol. 4, p1 

    Histomorphological features of colorectal cancers (CRC) represent valuable prognostic indicators for clinical decision making.The invasive margin is a central feature for prognostication shaped by the complex processes governing tumor-host interaction. Assessment of the tumor border can be...

  • STIM1, a direct target of microRNA-185, promotes tumor metastasis and is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. Zhang, Z; Liu, X; Feng, B; Liu, N; Wu, Q; Han, Y; Nie, Y; Wu, K; Shi, Y; Fan, D // Oncogene;9/10/2015, Vol. 34 Issue 37, p4808 

    STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1), an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor that triggers the store-operated Ca2+ entry activation, has recently been implicated in cancer progression. However, the role of STIM1 in the progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been addressed....

  • Expression of pim-1 in Tumors, Tumor Stroma and Tumor-Adjacent Mucosa Co-Determines the Prognosis of Colon Cancer Patients. Peng, Yong-hai; Li, Jian-jun; Xie, Fang-wei; Chen, Jian-fang; Yu, Ying-hao; Ouyang, Xue-nong; Liang, Hou-jie // PLoS ONE;Oct2013, Vol. 8 Issue 10, p1 

    Provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (pim-1) is a proto-oncogene that is linked to the development and progression of several cancers. In this study, we evaluated pim-1 expression in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa together as an independent prognostic...

  • Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms in patients with colorectal cancer. Jang, Moon; Kim, Jong; Jeon, Young; Chong, So; Oh, Doyeun; Kim, Nam // International Journal of Clinical Oncology;Dec2013, Vol. 18 Issue 6, p1032 

    Background: Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor development, progression, and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of angiogenesis. However, the contribution of common VEGF polymorphisms to colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis remains unclear. Methods:...

  • Matrix metalloproteinase-9 overexpression is closely related to poor prognosis in patients with colon cancer. Bo Yang; Fuqiu Tang; Bicheng Zhang; Yong Zhao; Junming Feng; Zhiguo Rao // World Journal of Surgical Oncology;2014, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p1 

    Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an important member of the matrix metalloproteinase family and is considered to be involved in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. This study analyzed the expression of MMP-9 in colon cancer patients and the relationship between this...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics