Spectral Characteristics of Speech at the Ear: Implications for Amplification in Children

Pittman, Andrea L.; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G.; Lewis, Dawna E.; Hoover, Brenda M.
June 2003
Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research;Jun2003, Vol. 46 Issue 3, p649
Academic Journal
This study examined the long-and short-term spectral characteristics of speech simultaneously recorded at the ear and at a reference microphone position (30 cm at 0° azimuth). Twenty adults and 26 children (2-4 years of age) with normal hearing were asked to produce 9 short sentences in a quiet environment. Long-term average speech spectra (LTASS) were calculated for the concatenated sentences, and short-term spectra were calculated for selected phonemes within the sentences (/m/, /n/, /s /, /∫/, /f/, /a/, /u/, and /i/). Relative to the reference microphone position, the LTASS at the ear showed higher amplitudes for frequencies below 1 kHz and lower amplitudes for frequencies above 2 kHz for both groups. At both microphone positions, the short-term spectra of the children's phonemes revealed reduced amplitudes for /s/ and /∫/ and for vowel energy above 2 kHz relative to the adults' phonemes. The results of this study suggest that, for listeners with hearing loss (a) the talker's own voice through a hearing instrument would contain lower overall energy at frequencies above 2 kHz relative to speech originating in front of the talker, (b) a child's own speech would contain even lower energy above 2 kHz because of adult-child differences in overall amplitude, and (c) frequency regions important to normal speech development (e.g., high-frequency energy in the phonemes /s/ and /∫/) may not be amplified sufficiently by many hearing instruments.


Related Articles

  • The relationship of phonological development and language dominance in bilingual Cantonese-Putonghua children. Naska C. W. Law; Lydia K. H. So // International Journal of Bilingualism;Dec2006, Vol. 10 Issue 4, p405 

    The study investigated similarities and differences in the development of the Cantonese and the Putonghua phonology of children becoming bilingual in those languages with different dominant languages. One hundred children living in Hong Kong or in Shenzhen and aged from 2;6–4;11, who were...

  • Relação entre as palavras eliciadas na Avaliação Fonológica da Criança e as variáveis idade, gênero e gravidade do desvio fonológico. Savoldi, Angélica; Gubiani, Marileda Barichello; Brancalioni, Ana Rita; Keske-Soares, Márcia // Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia;2012, Vol. 17 Issue 3, p293 

    Purpose: To verify the relationship between words belonging and not belonging to the Children Phonological Assessment (CPA) and the variables age, gender, and severity level of phonological disorders (PD), and to analyze the most frequently produced and substituted words in the CPA. Methods:...

  • Children's Naming and Word-Finding Difficulties: Descriptions and Explanations. Messer, David; Dockrell, Julie E. // Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research;Apr2006, Vol. 49 Issue 2, p309 

    Purpose: There is a substantial minority of children for whom lexical retrieval problems impede the normal pattern of language development and use. These problems include accurately producing the correct word even when the word's meaning is understood. Such problems are often referred to as...

  • Parâmetros acústicos do contraste de sonoridade das plosivas no desenvolvimento fonológico típico e no desviante. Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mota, Helena Bolli; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa; de Castro Brasil, Brunah; Lovatto, Liane; Arzeno, Leonardo // Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia;2012, Vol. 17 Issue 3, p304 

    Purpose: To investigate if children with phonological disorder present different acoustic characteristics of voiceless and voiced plosives from children with typical phonological development. Methods: Participants were 11 children with typical phonological development and five children with...

  • The Role of Parents in Children's Speech Development. Hansen, Halvor P. // Western Speech;Fall1962, Vol. 26 Issue 4, p231 

    Discusses the nature of normal speech development and of children's speech and/or hearing problems. Key objectives of the speech program; Key features of the speech program designed to help parents prevent speech problems in children; Implications on speech education.

  • DESEMPENHO EM CONSCIÊNCIA SILÁBICA E FONÊMICA EM CRIANÇAS COM DESENVOLVIMENTO DE FALA NORMAL E DESVIANTE. Marchetti, Paula Tavares; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa; Cielo, Carla Aparecida // Revista CEFAC;2010, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p12 

    Purpose: to compare the performance in the metaphonological skills at the level of syllabic and phonemic awareness, among children with normal development of speech and children with evolutional phonological disorder (EFD), aged 4 and 8 years. Methods: 49 subjects took part in the research,...

  • Auditory middle latency responses in children with specific language impairment. Al-Saif, Saud; Abdeltawwab, Mohamed; Khamis, Mahmoud // European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology;Jun2012, Vol. 269 Issue 6, p1697 

    Auditory-evoked potentials represent the response of the auditory pathway to an auditory stimulus. Specific language impairment (SLI) children have delayed language development with difficulties in both understanding and producing spoken language. Hence, the purpose of this study was to...

  • Clinical implications of the effects of lexical aspect and phonology on children's production of the regular past tense. Johnson, Bonnie W.; Morris, Sherrill R. // Child Language Teaching & Therapy;Oct2007, Vol. 23 Issue 3, p287 

    This study examined the effect of lexical aspect and phonology on regular past-tense production. Data are presented from a group of 31 children, mean age 33 months, with typical language development. A case study of a 50-month-old child with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is also presented....

  • Teaching Child with Delayed Speech. Schneiderman, Norma // Education;Mar1959, Vol. 79 Issue 7, p419 

    The article focuses on teaching the child with delayed speech. It points out that the most useful techniques for beginning language training for such children come from the established methods of teaching the deaf. Initially, it discusses three principles of teaching language borrowed from these...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics