Domain inversion effects in Ti-LiNbO3 integrated optical devices

Thaniyavarn, S.; Findakly, T.; Booher, D.; Moen, J.
May 1985
Applied Physics Letters;5/15/1985, Vol. 46 Issue 10, p933
Academic Journal
Significant degradation in the cumulative electro-optic effect attributable to domain inversion has been observed in integrated optical devices fabricated by Ti diffusion in c+-LiNbO3. The c- surface was found to be considerably more immune to domain inversion than the c+ surface under similar diffusion conditions. Domain inversion was found to be dependent on diffusion temperature, time, and Ti concentration. A large increase in the Vπ voltage was observed in Mach–Zehnder interferometers fabricated on c+ substrates compared to that of c- substrates under the same fabrication conditions. The effect of domain inversion on crosstalk in directional coupler switches is also discussed.


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