Engineered protein A ligands, derived from a histidine-scanning library, facilitate the affinity purification of IgG under mild acidic conditions

Masayuki Tsukamoto; Hideki Watanabe; Ayako Ooishi; Shinya Honda
July 2014
Journal of Biological Engineering;2014, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p2
Academic Journal
Background In antibody purification processes, the acidic buffer commonly used to elute the bound antibodies during conventional affinity chromatograph, can damage the antibody. Herein we describe the development of several types of affinity ligands which enable the purification of antibodies under much milder conditions. Results Staphylococcal protein A variants were engineered by using both structure-based design and combinatorial screening methods. The frequency of amino acid residue substitutions was statistically analyzed using the sequences isolated from a histidine-scanning library screening. The positions where the frequency of occurrence of a histidine residue was more than 70% were thought to be effective histidine-mutation sites. Consequently, we identified PAB variants with a D36H mutation whose binding of IgG was highly sensitive to pH change. Conclusion The affinity column elution chromatograms demonstrated that antibodies could be eluted at a higher pH (ΔpH**⩾2.0) than ever reported (ΔpH = 1.4) when the Staphylococcal protein A variants developed in this study were used as affinity ligands. The interactions between Staphylococcal protein A and IgG-Fab were shown to be important for the behavior of IgG bound on a SpA affinity column, and alterations in the affinity of the ligands for IgG-Fab clearly affected the conditions for eluting the bound IgG. Thus, a histidine-scanning library combined with a structure-based design was shown to be effective in engineering novel pHsensitive proteins.


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