Test-retest reliability of an insole plantar pressure system to assess gait along linear and curved trajectories

Godi, Marco; Turcato, Anna Maria; Schieppati, Marco; Nardone, Antonio
July 2014
Journal of NeuroEngineering & Rehabilitation (JNER);2014, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p1
Academic Journal
Background Previous studies have assessed reliability of insole technology for evaluating foot pressure distribution during linear walking. Since in natural motion straight walking is intermingled with turns, we determined the test-retest reliability of insole assessment for curved as well as linear trajectories, and estimated the minimum number of steps required to obtain excellent reliability for each output variable. Methods Sixteen young healthy participants were recruited. Each performed, two days apart, two sessions of three walking conditions: linear (LIN) and curved, clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW). The Pedar-X system was used to collect pressure distribution. Foot print was analyzed both as a whole and as subdivided into eight regions: medial and lateral heel, medial and lateral arch, I metatarsal head, II-V metatarsal heads, hallux, lateral toes. Reliability was assessed by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for clinically relevant variables from analysis of 50 steps per trajectory: Peak Force (PF); Peak Pressure (PP); Contact Area (CA); Stance Duration (S). Results When considering whole-foot, all variables showed an ICC >0.80, therefore highly reliable. This was true for both LIN and curved trajectories. There was no difference in ICC of the four variables between left and right foot. When collapsing foot and trajectories, S had a lower ICC than PP and CA, and PP lower than CA. Mean percent error between the values of first and second session was <5%. When separately considering the eight foot regions, ICCs of PF, PP and CA for all regions and trajectories were generally >0.90, indicating excellent reliability. In curved trajectories, S showed smaller ICCs. Since the least ICC value for S was 0.60 in LIN trajectory, we estimated that to achieve an ICC ⩾0.90 more than 200 steps should be collected. Conclusions High reliability of insole dynamic variables (PF, PP, CA) is obtained with 50 steps using the Pedar-X system. On the contrary, high reliability of temporal variable (S) requires a larger step number. The negligible differences in ICC between LIN and curved trajectory allow use of this device for gait assessment along mixed trajectories in both clinical and research setting.


Related Articles

  • You be the scientist.  // Current Science;12/15/95 1 of 2, Vol. 81 Issue 8, p7 

    Points out the coordinated movements of the legs and arms when walking. Effect of varying natural leg and arm rhythm.

  • Fluctuations in human’s walking. Obata, T.; Ohyama, T.; Shimada, J.; Oshima, H.; Hara, H.; Fujita, S. // AIP Conference Proceedings;2000, Vol. 519 Issue 1, p720 

    © 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  • Modulation of soleus H-reflexes during gait in healthy children. Hodapp, M.; Klisch, C.; Berger, W.; Mall, V.; Faist, M. // Experimental Brain Research;Mar2007, Vol. 178 Issue 2, p252 

    During locomotion spinal short latency reflexes are rhythmically modulated and depressed compared to rest. In adults this modulation is severely disturbed after bilateral spinal lesions indicating a role for supra-spinal control. Soleus reflex amplitudes are large in the stance phase and...

  • Variability of gait patterns during unconstrained walking assessed by satellite positioning (GPS). Terrier, Philippe; Schutz, Yves // European Journal of Applied Physiology;Nov2003, Vol. 90 Issue 5/6, p554 

    It is established that the ratio between step length (SL) and step frequency (SF) is constant over a large range of walking speed. However, few data are available about the spontaneous variability of this ratio during unconstrained outdoor walking, in particular over a sufficient number of...

  • ANÁLISIS DEL PERFIL DE USUARIO DE UN CENTRO NORDIC WALKING QUE INCORPORA LAS NUEVAS TENDENCIAS EN EL WELLNESS. Martínez-Lemos, Iván Rodolfo // Motricidad: European Journal of Human Movement;Jun2013, Vol. 30, p73 

    Nordic Walking is walking with the aid of two poles specially designed and making a rhythmic movement of arm swing, very similar to normal gait cycle but of greater amplitude. As overall exercise activates a large number of muscle groups, however its practitioners refer low-perceived effort....

  • WALKING DOWNHILL: THE TRADE-OFF BETWEEN ENERGETICS AND STABILITY. Hendrix, Emily; Hunter, Lindsay; Dean, Jesse // Conference Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Soc;2010, p92 

    The article discusses a study of the trade-off between energetics and stability during downhill walking. The researchers simulated a dynamic walking model in which they predicted that increased slope would reduce the needed actuation and decrease stability. They found that steeper slopes...

  • Gait acts as a gate for reflexes from the foot. Duysens, J.; Bastiaanse, C. M.; Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Dietz, V. // Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology;Aug2004, Vol. 82 Issue 8/9, p715 

    During human gait, electrical stimulation of the foot elicits facilitatory P2 (medium latency) responses in TA (tibialis anterior) at the onset of the swing phase, while the same stimuli cause suppressive responses at the end of swing phase, along with facilitatory responses in antagonists. This...

  • Gait variability in younger and older adult women is altered by overground walking protocol. PATERSON, KADE L.; LYTHGO, NOEL D.; HILL, KEITH D. // Age & Ageing;Nov2009, Vol. 38 Issue 6, p745 

    The article focuses on a study which compared the gait variability data in over-ground walking between young and older women. The study included 22 young and 32 older women who were asked to complete two walking protocols. Study authors claimed that the gait variability in repeated single...

  • Characterization of a System for Studying Human Gait During Slope Walking. Lay, Andrea N.; Hass, Chris J.; Smith, D. Webb; Gregor, Robert J. // Journal of Applied Biomechanics;May2005, Vol. 21 Issue 2, p153 

    Sloped walking surfaces provide a unique environment for examining the biomechanics and neural control of locomotion. While sloped surfaces have been used in a variety of studies in recent years, the current literature provides little if any discussion of the integrity, i.e., validity, of the...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics