Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis for Multiple Imputation in Principal Component Analysis

Ginkel, Joost; Kroonenberg, Pieter
July 2014
Journal of Classification;Jul2014, Vol. 31 Issue 2, p242
Academic Journal
Multiple imputation is one of the most highly recommended procedures for dealing with missing data. However, to date little attention has been paid to methods for combining the results from principal component analyses applied to a multiply imputed data set. In this paper we propose Generalized Procrustes analysis for this purpose, of which its centroid solution can be used as a final estimate for the component loadings. Convex hulls based on the loadings of the imputed data sets can be used to represent the uncertainty due to the missing data. In two simulation studies, the performance of Generalized Procrustes approach is evaluated and compared with other methods. More specifically it is studied how these methods behave when order changes of components and sign reversals of component loadings occur, such as in case of near-equal eigenvalues, or data having almost as many counterindicative items as indicative items. The simulations show that other proposed methods either may run into serious problems or are not able to adequately assess the accuracy due to the presence of missing data. However, when the above situations do not occur, all methods will provide adequate estimates for the PCA loadings.


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