Morphological diversity of sperm: A mini review

Prakash, Seppan; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Suresh, Sekar; Venkata Lakshmi, Nagella; Karthik Ganesh, Mohanraj; Anuradha, Murugesan; Ganesh, Lakshmanan; Dinesh, Premavathy
April 2014
Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine;Apr2014, Vol. 12 Issue 4, p239
Academic Journal
Sperms are highly specialized cells for delivering DNA from male to the ovum. Incredibly, wide degree of diversity in sperm morphology in their basic structures i.e. head, middle piece and tail is found across species. Differences in terms of overall size of the sperm, shape and number of sperm produced are also incredible. One of the key for this variations or diversity in sperm may be associated with female reproductive tract, sperm competition, testicular size and sperm size and number. Establishing a correlation between sperm morphology and factors influencing them is a phenomenal task. In this mini-review these associations and the anatomical and functional adaptations among different from of sperm cells that have evolved to optimize fertilization success are discussed. Nevertheless, explaining these morphological diversities in sperm cells is a challenging question and it seems that evolutionary biologists have only recently engaged in exploring its links and patterns. From the literatures it seems that there is no causal relationship between sperm size and testicular size, however, the accumulated knowledge do indicates evolution of sperm morphology across species has some associations with female reproductive tract, sperm competition and sperm size and number, however interpreting these results for phylogentic correlations should be approached with caution.


Related Articles

  • The spermatozoa caught in the net: the biological networks to study the male gametes post-ejaculatory life. Bernabò, Nicola; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara // BMC Systems Biology;2010, Vol. 4, p87 

    Background: Mammalian spermatozoa, immediately after the ejaculation are unable to fertilize the oocyte. To reach their fertilizing ability the male gametes must complete a process of functional maturation, the capacitation, within the female genital tract. Only once the capacitation is...

  • The female reproductive system and control of oviposition in Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Lange, Angela B. // Canadian Journal of Zoology;Aug2009, Vol. 87 Issue 8, p649 

    The spermatheca acts as a repository for sperm deposited by the male and, in the African migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides (Fairmaire and Reiche, 1849)), is situated dorsal to the lateral and common oviducts. In the locust, eggs mature in the ovaries and are ovulated into the...

  • Glycodelins Glycoforms in Female Reproductive Tract Aid Sperm in Fertilization. Yeung, William S. B. // Fertility Weekly;5/10/2010, p2 

    The article offers information on glycodelin glycoforms which helps spermatozoa in the fertilization in the female reproductive tract. It presents reviews from William S.B. Yeung and collegues based in their observation in glycodelin that modulate sperm function. Yeung and collegues say that the...

  • Cambios en el espermatozoide de mamífero para adquirir la habilidad fertilizante. Maduración y Capacitación (Parte I). Sánchez, Leobardo Calzada; Areizaga, María Magdalena Garduño; Esquivel, Edith Lucía Salazar // Boletin del Colegio Mexicano de Urologia;sep-dic2011, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p116 

    During transit of sperm in the different regions that constitute the male reproductive tract and female reproductive tract, changes occur in the distribution, reorganization, remodeling, synthesis and removal of molecules in the different compartments of the sperm. Cellular changes that...

  • Kinases, phosphatases and proteases during sperm capacitation. Signorelli, Janetti; Diaz, Emilce; Morales, Patricio // Cell & Tissue Research;Sep2012, Vol. 349 Issue 3, p765 

    Fertilization is the process by which male and female haploid gametes (sperm and egg) unite to produce a genetically distinct individual. In mammals, fertilization involves a number of sequential steps, including sperm migration through the female genital tract, sperm penetration through the...

  • Application of quantum dot nanoparticles for potential non-invasive bio-imaging of mammalian spermatozoa. Feugang, Jean M.; Youngblood, Ramey C.; Greene, Jonathan M.; Fahad, Abed S.; Monroe, William A.; Willard, Scott T.; Ryan, Peter L. // Journal of Nanobiotechnology;2012, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p45 

    Background: Various obstacles are encountered by mammalian spermatozoa during their journey through the female genital tract, and only few or none will reach the site of fertilization. Currently, there are limited technical approaches for non-invasive investigation of spermatozoa migration after...

  • Proteins from human oviductal tissue-conditioned medium modulate sperm capacitation. Zumoffen, C. M.; Caille, A. M.; Munuce, M. J.; Cabada, M. O.; Ghersevich, S. A. // Human Reproduction;Jun2010, Vol. 25 Issue 6, p1504 

    BACKGROUND: Spermatozoa acquire the ability to fertilize an oocyte when they become capacitated. Capacitation takes place when sperm pass through the female reproductive tract, interacting with female fluids. Both tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins and the ability to respond to acrosome...

  • Polyspermy prevention: facts and artifacts? Dale, Brian; DeFelice, Louis // Journal of Assisted Reproduction & Genetics;Mar2011, Vol. 28 Issue 3, p199 

    The purpose of this review is to open a debate as to whether or not oocytes actively repel supernumerary sperm or in nature final sperm : oocyte ratios are so low that polyspermy preventing mechanisms are not necessary. Before encountering the oocyte, spermatozoa need to be primed, either by...

  • Sperm Dynamics in Spiders (Araneae): Ultrastructural Analysis of the Sperm Activation Process in the Garden Spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772). Vöcking, Oliver; Uhl, Gabriele; Michalik, Peter // PLoS ONE;Sep2013, Vol. 8 Issue 9, p1 

    Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics