Is There a Role for Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Canine Renal Disease?

Brown, Scott A.; Finco, Delmar R.; Brown, Cathy A.
December 1998
Journal of Nutrition;Dec98, Vol. 128 Issue 12, p2765S
Academic Journal
Dogs with spontaneous renal diseases frequently develop progressive uremia. After partial nephrectomy, a similar pattern of progressively declining renal function develops. This pattern may be attributed in part to the development of glomerular hypertension in remnant canine nephrons. Changes in the composition of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modify glomerular hemodynamics in normal rats and affect the chronic course of renal disease in partially nephrectomized rats. Thus, dietary PUFA supplementation might alter progressive canine nephropathies. However, the response of dogs with renal insufficiency to dietary manipulations frequently differs substantially from that of laboratory rodents, and the effects of dietary PUFA composition have been poorly characterized in dogs with chronic renal disease. Here we address the hypothesis that dietary PUFA supplementation may delay the progression of chronic renal insufficiency in dogs. In particular, dogs ingesting diets supplemented with (n-6) PUFA exhibited severe glomerular hypertension associated with rapidly progressive renal failure. In contrast, dietary supplementation with (n-3) PUFA prevented deterioration of the glomerular filtration rate and preserved renal structure. The results of these model studies demonstrate that dietary PUFA supplementation may alter renal hemodynamics and the long-term course of renal injury in dogs. Clinical trials to address the potential benefits of dietary (n-3) PUFA supplementation in a variety of spontaneous renal diseases seem warranted.


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