Pharmacological Properties of Parenteral Cephalosporins: Rationale for Ambulatory Use

Strehl, E.; Kees, F.
June 2000
Drugs;Jun2000 Supplement 3, Vol. 59 Issue 6, p9
Academic Journal
Parenteral cephalosporins are among the most frequently used antibiotics in hospital therapy. They are characterised by an extended spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and some also have good activity against anaerobes. They kill proliferating bacterial cells rapidly, and generally show only a low tendency to select resistant mutants. However, there are cephalosporin compounds which induce cephalosporinases very rapidly in certain microorganisms. Together with other β-lactam antibiotics, parenteral cephalosporins interfere with bacterial cell wall synthesis by inhibiting peptidoglycan cross-linkage. Because of this specific target, they are nontoxic to mammalian cells, and have a very favourable adverse effect profile. The chemical stability of parenteral cephalosporins in aqueous solution is good. After intravenous injection, high concentrations of these agents are achieved in serum and tissue. Most cephalosporins are eliminated unchanged via the kidney, with a half-life of 1 to 2 hours. But there are also derivatives with a serum half-life of more than 2 and up to 8 hours, allowing 12- or 24-hour dosage intervals. Because of their reliable efficacy and low risk of adverse effects, the parenteral cephalosporins offer a high degree of tolerability even in the setting of outpatient antibiotic therapy. In particular, the derivatives of the third generation are characterised by unique pharmacological properties.


Related Articles

  • Antibiotic exposure, renal disease linked to MDR gram-negative bacteremia in neonates.  // Infectious Disease News;Feb2014, Vol. 27 Issue 2, p52 

    The article discusses research into the link between antibiotic exposure to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems in neonates with underlying renal disease and patients' risk for developing multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteremia in the neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) and...

  • Cephalosporins. Wise, Richard // British Medical Journal;7/1/1978, Vol. 2 Issue 6129, p40 

    Examines the availability of six cephalosporins in the market. Comments on individual preparation of drug; Discussion on the properties of antibiotics; Confusion of bacteriologists in reporting organism susceptibility of drug.

  • When to use the newer beta-lactam antibiotics. Rosenfeld, Elaine; Shaughnessy, Allen F. // Patient Care;9/15/1995, Vol. 29 Issue 14, p119 

    Studies the use of the new beta-lactam antibiotics and some third generation cephalosporin drugs. Brief on the fungus Cephalosporium acremonium; Description of oral agents Cefixime, Cefpodoxime proxetil, Cefprozil and Loracarbef, and parental agents Ceftazidine, Aztreonam, Imipenem/cilastatin...

  • Separating Fact from Fiction: The Data Behind Allergies and Side Effects Caused by Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and Carbapenem Antibiotics. Leviton, Ira // Current Pharmaceutical Design;May2003, Vol. 9 Issue 12, p983 

    Antibiotics developed over the past quarter century have greatly improved toxic to therapeutic ratios compared to older agents. This is due to both a wider spectrum of in vitro antibacterial activity and less frequent side effects. In combination with once daily dosing and nearly complete...

  • Cephalosporins in Veterinary Medicine - Ceftiofur Use in Food Animals. Hornish, Rex E.; Kotarski, Susan F. // Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry;Jul2002, Vol. 2 Issue 7, p717 

    Cephalosporins are an important class of antibacterial agents in use today for both humans and animals. Four generations of cephalosporins have evolved, all of which contain the beta-lactam sub-structure first found in penicillin. The range of cephalosporins available for use in food-producing...

  • Cephalosporin Allergy. Kelkar, Pramod S.; Li, James T.-C. // New England Journal of Medicine;9/13/2001, Vol. 345 Issue 11, p804 

    Presents a review of allergy to cephalosporin antibiotics, with special attention to the risks of administering them to patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Reactions to cephalosporins; Cross-reactivity with penicillin; Risk factors; Recommendations.

  • Laboratory and Clinical Evaluation of a New Antibiotic--Cephalothin. Turck, Marvin; Anderson, Kenneth N.; Smith, Ronald H.; Wallace, James E.; Petersdorf, Robert G. // Annals of Internal Medicine;Aug65, Vol. 63 Issue 2, p199 

    Describes the use of antibiotic cephalothin for the treatment of various infections. Tube dilution sensitivity tests of gram-negative pathogens with cephalothin; Comparison of cephalothin with other antibiotics; Effect of inoculum size on sensitivity of gram-negative pathogens to cephalothin.

  • cephalosporin.  // Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (2009);2009, Issue 21, p407 

    An encyclopedia entry for the antibiotic "cephalosporin" is presented.

  • cephamycin.  // Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (2009);2009, Issue 21, p408 

    A definition of the term "cephamycin," which refers to a group of antibiotics related to the second-generation cephalosporins that targets Enterobacteriaceae but has a decreased effect against gram-positive bacteria, is presented.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics