Hurst, M.; Faulds, D.
December 2000
Drugs;Dec2000, Vol. 60 Issue 6, p1371
Academic Journal
▴ Lopinavir is a protease inhibitor with high specificity for HIV-1 protease. Ritonavir strongly inhibits lopinavir metabolism; coadministration of lopinavir and ritonavir in healthy volunteers increased the area under the lopinavir plasma concentration-time curve >100-fold. ▴ Trough plasma concentration : antiviral 50% effective concentration ratio for lopinavir was >75 for wild-type HIV at the dose used in clinical trials, compared to values of ≤4 for other commonly used protease inhibitors. ▴ Coformulated lopinavir and ritonavir (lopinavir/ ritonavir) 400/100mg twice daily for 48 weeks suppressed HIV replication in significantly more antiretroviral-naive patients than nelfinavir 750mg 3 times daily (all patients also received stavudine and lamivudine). ▴ Suppression of viral replication was observed in most protease inhibitor-experienced patients with lopinavir/ ritonavir (400/100, 400/200 or 533/133mg twice daily for 48 or 96 weeks) in combination with ≥2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and either efavirenz or nevirapine. ▴ 48 weeks of treatment with twice daily lopinavir/ ritonavir (230/57.5 or 300/75 mg/m for the first 12 weeks and then 300/75 mg/m) in combination with 1 or 2 NRTIs, with or without nevirapine, suppressed viral replication in the majority of antiretroviral-naive and -experienced paediatric patients (aged 6 months to 12 years). ▴ Diarrhoea, nausea and asthenia were the most frequently reported adverse effects in patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimens. Elevated total cholesterol, triglyceride and hepatic enzyme levels were also reported.


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