Behavior- and Outcome-Based Sales Control Systems: Evidence and Consequences of Pure-Form and Hybrid Governance

Oliver, Richard L.; Anderson, Erin
September 1995
Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management;Fall95, Vol. 15 Issue 4, p1
Academic Journal
Anderson and Oliver (1987) presented a behavior vs. outcome sales control taxonomy based on methods of monitoring salespersons' effort. Under an outcome system, sales revenue is thought to be a sufficient criterion for sales proficiency. Under a behavior system, the sales process itself is critical and �input� monitoring activities are maximized. Oliver and Anderson (1994) tested these differences on salesperson perceptions and found effects on affective and cognitive consequences. This paper extends these findings and shows that, while conventional behavior and outcome strategies appear to be operating in accord with theory, evidence is found for an integrated or �hybrid� philosophy exhibiting degrees of both. The incidence and nature of such strategies are discussed in terms of their consequences and implications.


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