Mechanism of blood-retinal barrier breakdown induced by HIV-1 (Review)

April 2014
Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine;2014, Vol. 7 Issue 4, p768
Academic Journal
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has been detected in ocular tissues; however, the mechanism of entry has not been established. It has been hypothesized that the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), a critical guardian against microbial invasion of the eye, may be compromised in the presence of HIV-1 in the eye. In vivo and in vitro model systems have shown that the breach of tight junctions induced by HIV-1-associated factors contributes to the breakdown of the BRB. The present study reviews the mechanism of tight junction disruption, focusing on signaling pathways, the expression of enzymes, including metalloproteinases, and cytokines that affect inflammation. The studied pathways may be potential targets for the prevention of ocular HIV complications.


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