TITLE

Adenosine Receptors: Expression, Function and Regulation

AUTHOR(S)
Sheth, Sandeep; Brito, Rafael; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.; Ramkumar, Vickram
PUB. DATE
February 2014
SOURCE
International Journal of Molecular Sciences;Feb2014, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p2024
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Adenosine receptors (ARs) comprise a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) which mediate the physiological actions of adenosine. To date, four AR subtypes have been cloned and identified in different tissues. These receptors have distinct localization, signal transduction pathways and different means of regulation upon exposure to agonists. This review will describe the biochemical characteristics and signaling cascade associated with each receptor and provide insight into how these receptors are regulated in response to agonists. A key property of some of these receptors is their ability to serve as sensors of cellular oxidative stress, which is transmitted by transcription factors, such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB, to regulate the expression of ARs. Recent observations of oligomerization of these receptors into homo- and heterodimers will be discussed. In addition, the importance of these receptors in the regulation of normal and pathological processes such as sleep, the development of cancers and in protection against hearing loss will be examined.
ACCESSION #
94703416

 

Related Articles

  • Regulation of Constitutive GPR3 Signaling and Surface Localization by GRK2 and β-arrestin-2 Overexpression in HEK293 Cells. Lowther, Katie M.; Uliasz, Tracy F.; Götz, Konrad R.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Mehlmann, Lisa M. // PLoS ONE;Jun2013, Vol. 8 Issue 6, p1 

    G protein-coupled receptor 3 (GPR3) is a constitutively active receptor that maintains high 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels required for meiotic arrest in oocytes and CNS function. Ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal at the cell surface and...

  • Classification of G proteins and prediction of GPCRs-G proteins coupling specificity using continuous wavelet transform and information theory. Li, Zhanchao; Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiaoyong // Amino Acids;Aug2012, Vol. 43 Issue 2, p793 

    The coupling between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) regulates various signal transductions from extracellular space into the cell. However, the coupling mechanism between GPCRs and G proteins is still unknown, and experimental...

  • Structure of active β-arrestin-1 bound to a G-protein-coupled receptor phosphopeptide. Shukla, Arun K.; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Xiao, Kunhong; Reis, Rosana I.; Tseng, Wei-Chou; Staus, Dean P.; Hilger, Daniel; Uysal, Serdar; Huang, Li-Yin; Paduch, Marcin; Tripathi-Shukla, Prachi; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei; Weis, William I.; Kossiakoff, Anthony A.; Kobilka, Brian K.; Lefkowitz, Robert J. // Nature;5/2/2013, Vol. 497 Issue 7447, p137 

    The functions of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are primarily mediated and modulated by three families of proteins: the heterotrimeric G proteins, the G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and the arrestins. G proteins mediate activation of second-messenger-generating enzymes and other...

  • The Downstream Regulation of Chemokine Receptor Signalling: Implications for Atherosclerosis. Patel, Jyoti; Channon, Keith M.; McNeill, Eileen // Mediators of Inflammation;2013, Vol. 2013, p1 

    Heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key mediators of intracellular signalling, control numerous physiological processes, and are one of the largest class of proteins to be pharmacologically targeted. Chemokine-induced macrophage recruitment into the vascular wall is an early...

  • Adenosine Receptors Differentially Regulate the Expression of Regulators of G-Protein Signalling (RGS) 2, 3 and 4 in Astrocyte-Like Cells. Eusemann, Till Nicolas; Willmroth, Frank; Fiebich, Bernd; Biber, Knut; van Calker, Dietrich // PLoS ONE;8/11/2015, Vol. 10 Issue 8, p1 

    The “regulators of g-protein signalling” (RGS) comprise a large family of proteins that limit by virtue of their GTPase accelerating protein domain the signal transduction of G-protein coupled receptors. RGS proteins have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as...

  • Astrocytes Protect Neurons against Methylmercury via ATP/P2Y1 Receptor-Mediated Pathways in Astrocytes. Noguchi, Yusuke; Shinozaki, Youichi; Fujishita, Kayoko; Shibata, Keisuke; Imura, Yoshio; Morizawa, Yosuke; Gachet, Christian; Koizumi, Schuichi // PLoS ONE;Feb2013, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p1 

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well known environmental pollutant that induces serious neuronal damage. Although MeHg readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and should affect both neurons and glial cells, how it affects glia or neuron-to-glia interactions has received only limited attention. Here,...

  • Arginine 199 and Leucine 208 Have Key Roles in the Control of Adenosine A2A Receptor Signalling Function. Bertheleme, Nicolas; Strege, Annette; Bunting, Sorrel E.; Dowell, Simon J.; Byrne, Bernadette // PLoS ONE;Mar2014, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p1 

    One successful approach to obtaining high-resolution crystal structures of G-protein coupled receptors is the introduction of thermostabilising mutations within the receptor. This technique allows the generation of receptor constructs stabilised into different conformations suitable for...

  • Mechanisms of the 14-3-3 Protein Function: Regulation of Protein Function Through Conformational Modulation. OBSILOVA, V.; KOPECKA, M.; KOSEK, D.; KACIROVA, M.; KYLAROVA, S.; REZABKOVA, L.; OBSIL, T. // Physiological Research;2014 Supplement 1, Vol. 63 Issue S1, pS155 

    Many aspects of protein function regulation require specific protein-protein interactions to carry out the exact biochemical and cellular functions. The highly conserved members of the 14-3-3 protein family mediate such interactions and through binding to hundreds of other proteins provide...

  • Recent Progress in Understanding Subtype Specific Regulation of NMDA Receptors by G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). Kai Yang; Jackson, Michael F.; MacDonald, John F. // International Journal of Molecular Sciences;Feb2014, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p3003 

    G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of receptors whose ligands constitute nearly a third of prescription drugs in the market. They are widely involved in diverse physiological functions including learning and memory. NMDA receptors (NMDARs), which belong to the ionotropic...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics