Gross hematuria in patients with prostate cancer: etiology and management

Gofrit, Ofer N.; Katz, Ran; Shapiro, Amos; Yutkin, Vladimir; Pizov, Galina; Zorn, Kevin C.; Duvdevani, Mordechai; Landau, Ezekiel H.; Pode, Dov
January 2013
ISRN Surgery;2013, p1
Academic Journal
journal article
The objective of the study is to assess the etiology and prognosis of gross hematuria (GH) in patients with carcinoma of the prostate (CAP). From 1991 to 2011, 81 men (mean age 74.3 years, SD 6.5) with CAP were hospitalized with GH. Primary treatment of CAP was radical surgery in 13 patients (group 1) and nonsurgical therapy in 68 (group 2), mostly radiotherapy (35 cases) and hormonal treatment (25 cases). The common etiologies of GH in group 1 were bladder cancer (38.5%) and urinary infection (23%). In contrast, CAP itself caused GH in 60% of the patients in group 2. Thirty-nine patients (48%) required transurethral surgery to manage GH which was effective in all cases; nevertheless, the prognosis of group 2 patients was dismal with median overall survival of 13 months after sustaining hematuria, compared to 50 months in group 1 (P = 0.0015). We conclude that the etiology of GH in patients with CAP varies according to primary treatment. After radical prostatectomy, it is habitually caused by bladder cancer or infection. When the primary treatment is not surgical, GH is most commonly due to CAP itself. Although surgical intervention is effective in alleviating hematuria of these patients, their prognosis is dismal.


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