Assessment of Nutritional Status, Body Composition, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Morphologic Changes

Knox, Tamsin A.; Zafonte-Sanders, Melissa; Fields-Gardner, Cade; Moen, Karol; Johansen, Diana; Paton, Nicholas
April 2003
Clinical Infectious Diseases;4/2/2003 Supplement 2, Vol. 36, pS63
Academic Journal
Nutritional status should be assessed at regular intervals as part of management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The simplest approach to assessment is serial weight measurement. A comprehensive nutritional assessment includes (1) anthropometric measurements of body composition; (2) biochemical measurements of serum protein, micronutrients, and metabolic parameters; (3) clinical assessment of altered nutritional requirements and social or psychological issues that may preclude adequate intake; and (4) measurement of dietary intake. Techniques for measuring body composition of fat and lean body mass include anthropometry and bioelectric impedance analysis. Other techniques, including dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), hydrodensitometry, total body potassium measurement, and cross-sectional computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are available in research centers. Anthropometry, including waist-hip ratios, regional DXA, and cross-sectional imaging, is best for detecting morphologic changes associated with fat redistribution syndrome. Nutritional assessment and intervention in children with HIV can help to prevent stunted growth and development.


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