Doping diagnosis by evaluation of the surface Fermi level using scanning Maxwell-stress microscopy

Matsukawa, Takashi; Kanemaru, Seigo; Masahara, Meishoku; Nagao, Masayoshi; Tanoue, Hisao; Itoh, Junji
March 2003
Applied Physics Letters;3/31/2003, Vol. 82 Issue 13, p2166
Academic Journal
A microscopic approach for evaluation of the Fermi level on the silicon surface under various doping conditions is reported. We have utilized scanning Maxwell-stress microscopy (SMM) for measurement of the surface potential. The surface Fermi level evaluated by SMM was almost identical to the bulk Fermi level determined by doping when the surface states are passivated by thermal oxide. The SMM measurement on the pn junction under an electrically shorted condition exhibited contrast in potential which is consistent with that of the bulk Fermi level. The results for the open circuit condition exhibited an inconsistent potential profile, which is due to the photovoltaic effect from light irradiation of the sample.


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