TITLE

OUTBREAK OF CHARCOAL DISEASE ON Quercus SPP AND Zelkova carpinifolia TREES IN FORESTS OF ZAGROS AND ALBORZ MOUNTAINS IN IRAN

AUTHOR(S)
MIRABOLFATHY, M.
PUB. DATE
April 2013
SOURCE
Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology;2013, Vol. 49 Issue 2, p77
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
During the last four years (2009- 2012) several reports of forest tree decline were received, complaining about serious damage and death of many trees. The disease has been spread throughout forests of Zagross mountains which extend from north west to south west of Iran covering approximately 4,000,000 ha. Also the disease has been spread throughout forests of Alborz mountains in the north of Iran. The infected tree species included Q. brantii, Q. castaneifolia and Zelkova carpinifolia. Q. brantii Lindl. (Persian oak) has dominated in all parts of Zagros mountains from north to south, especially on the southern side of mountain in Ilam, Lorestan, Kohgilouyeh va Boyer-Ahmad, Fars and Kermanshah provinces. Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall.) Dippel, and Quercus castaneifolia C.A.Mey are native to the Caucasus and Alborz mountains in northern parts of Iran. The decline began with browning of the leaves, viscous liquid exudatation on the branches and trunks resulting in a brown-black discoloration of bark and woody tissues. In the winter of the next year fungal growth induces a typical charcoal-black surface on diseased branches and trunks. The perithecia of B. mediterranea were observed in a black carbonaceous layer on the stem surface erupting from the declined trees and the ascospores were visible under light microscope. Perithecia were obovoid, containing, amyloid asci, with dark brown ellipsoid ascospores, with straight germ slits along the spore-length. On the basis of these morphological characteristics, the fungus was identified as Biscogniauxia mediterranea. Pathogenicity tests were conducted using an isolate of B. mediterranea on six-month-old Q. brantii seedlings using a mycelial plug of B. mediterranea colonized potato-dextrose agar and the symptoms were observed after two months and the same fungus was re-isolated. Based on previous studies infections occur in healthy living trees as endophyte and then become invasive under water stress conditions in most reports. B. mediterranea has been reported to be aggressive on drought stressed hosts. During the last ten years climate changes has occurred in Zagros forests and resulting drought stress extending desert areas followed by occurrence of the fine dust phenomenon has reduced the photosynthesis of the forest trees and making them more vulnerable to the disease. In spite of tolerance of Persian oak species to the range of temperatures from -31°C until +45, the incidence of charcoal disease has been increased dramatically on Q. brantii forests. On the basis of our current knowledge, Q. brantii represents a new host of B. mediterranea and this is the first report of Persian oak charcoal disease outbreaks throughout Zagros mountain forests of Lorestan, Ilam, Fars, Kohgiloye va Boyer -- Ahmad and on Zelkova carpinfolia in Daland forests of Gorgan area.
ACCESSION #
93430460

 

Related Articles

  • TREE DOCTOR BY THE DAVEY TREE EXPERT CO.  // American Forests;Autumn2009, Vol. 115 Issue 3, p21 

    The article presents several questions and answers related to diseases in trees, including one on worms in trees, one on evergreen turning brown in Bedford, Massachusetts and one on suckers developed in a wye oak tree.

  • Diversification of tree stands as a means to manage pests and diseases in boreal forests: myth or reality? Koricheva, Julia; Vehviläinen, Harri; Riihimäki, Janne; Ruohomäki, Kai; Kaitaniemi, Pekka; Ranta, Hanna // Canadian Journal of Forest Research;Feb2006, Vol. 36 Issue 2, p324 

    Pure forest stands are widely believed to be more prone to pest outbreaks and disease epidemics than mixed stands, leading to recommendations of using stand diversification as a means of controlling forest pests and pathogens. We review the existing evidence concerning the effects of stand...

  • 1000 surveyed -- no P. ramorum.  // Forestry & British Timber;Jun2004, Vol. 33 Issue 6, p6 

    Reports on the failure of the Forestry Commission to find any cases of Phytopthora ramorum in more than a thousand woodland sites across England, Scotland and Wales. Leaf necrosis on rhododendron.

  • Infestation of dendrological collection in central Poland by aphids. Ratajczak, Justyna; Wilkaniec, Barbara; Wilkaniec, Agnieszka // Dendrobiology;Nov2011, Vol. 66, p85 

    The study was aimed at determining the species composition of aphid fauna related to the dendroflora of Kórnik Arboretum as well as determining the infestation level of trees and shrubs. The infestation level was measured on a five-level scale. The material was collected on two sites: in a...

  • So Who Needs a FORESTER? HOFFMAN, BEN // Countryside & Small Stock Journal;May/Jun2013, Vol. 97 Issue 3, p54 

    The article contends that owners of forest land will need a forester. It says that cutting trees in a forest is the key to maximizing benefits and income. It mentions that eliminating the poorer, diseased and insect damaged trees only enhances a wood lot. The most important product of a forest...

  • Rocky Mountain Forests at Risk. Funk, Jason; Saunders, Stephen; Sanford, Todd; Easley, Tom; Markham, Adam // Greentips;2014, pi 

    The article indicates that the combination of tree-killing insects, wildlife and heat and dryness is putting the forests at the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. at great risk. Topics include scientific evidence showing that climate change is the major force driving these changes as well as hotter and...

  • Green Devolution.  // National Parks;Sep/Oct87, Vol. 61 Issue 9/10, p17 

    Focuses on the estimated number of diseased trees that cause accelerated rates of deforestation in Germany. Species of trees affected by pollution-borne diseases; Concerns over acid deposition.

  • TREE MAINTENANCE.  // Arbor Age;Apr2005, Vol. 25 Issue 4, p29 

    Provides information on tree maintenance products. Onyx insecticide from FMC; BugBarrier Tree Band from Envirometrics; TriStar 70 WSP from Cleary Chemical Corp.

  • Forest Health in a Changing World. Pautasso, Marco; Schlegel, Markus; Holdenrieder, Ottmar // Microbial Ecology;May2015, Vol. 69 Issue 4, p826 

    Forest pathology, the science of forest health and tree diseases, is operating in a rapidly developing environment. Most importantly, global trade and climate change are increasing the threat to forest ecosystems posed by new diseases. Various studies relevant to forest pathology in a changing...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics