TITLE

Placental Syncytium Forms a Biophysical Barrier against Pathogen Invasion

AUTHOR(S)
Zeldovich, Varvara B.; Clausen, Casper H.; Bradford, Emily; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Maltepe, Emin; Robbins, Jennifer R.; Bakardjiev, Anna I.
PUB. DATE
December 2013
SOURCE
PLoS Pathogens;Dec2013, Vol. 9 Issue 12, p1
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Fetal syncytiotrophoblasts form a unique fused multinuclear surface that is bathed in maternal blood, and constitutes the main interface between fetus and mother. Syncytiotrophoblasts are exposed to pathogens circulating in maternal blood, and appear to have unique resistance mechanisms against microbial invasion. These are due in part to the lack of intercellular junctions and their receptors, the Achilles heel of polarized mononuclear epithelia. However, the syncytium is immune to receptor-independent invasion as well, suggesting additional general defense mechanisms against infection. The difficulty of maintaining and manipulating primary human syncytiotrophoblasts in culture makes it challenging to investigate the cellular and molecular basis of host defenses in this unique tissue. Here we present a novel system to study placental pathogenesis using murine trophoblast stem cells (mTSC) that can be differentiated into syncytiotrophoblasts and recapitulate human placental syncytium. Consistent with previous results in primary human organ cultures, murine syncytiotrophoblasts were found to be resistant to infection with Listeria monocytogenes via direct invasion and cell-to-cell spread. Atomic force microscopy of murine syncytiotrophoblasts demonstrated that these cells have a greater elastic modulus than mononuclear trophoblasts. Disruption of the unusually dense actin structure – a diffuse meshwork of microfilaments - with Cytochalasin D led to a decrease in its elastic modulus by 25%. This correlated with a small but significant increase in invasion of L. monocytogenes into murine and human syncytium. These results suggest that the syncytial actin cytoskeleton may form a general barrier against pathogen entry in humans and mice. Moreover, murine TSCs are a genetically tractable model system for the investigation of specific pathways in syncytial host defenses.
ACCESSION #
93395302

 

Related Articles

  • Highly Invasive Listeria monocytogenes Strains Have Growth and Invasion Advantages in Strain Competition. Zilelidou, Evangelia A.; Rychli, Kathrin; Manthou, Evanthia; Ciolacu, Luminita; Wagner, Martin; Skandamis, Panagiotis N. // PLoS ONE;11/3/2015, Vol. 10 Issue 10, p1 

    Multiple Listeria monocytogenes strains can be present in the same food sample; moreover, infection with more than one L. monocytogenes strain can also occur. In this study we investigated the impact of strain competition on the growth and in vitro virulence potential of L. monocytogenes. We...

  • Evaluation of Stem Cell-to-Tenocyte Differentiation By Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure Cellular Elastic Moduli. Morita, Yasuyuki; Mukai, Taichi; Ju, Yang; Watanabe, Sachi // Cell Biochemistry & Biophysics;May2013, Vol. 66 Issue 1, p73 

    In the present study, we evaluated whether stem cell-to-tenocyte differentiation could be evaluated via measurement of the mechanical properties of the cell. We used mechanical uniaxial cyclic stretching to induce the differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into tenocytes....

  • Regulation of Stem Cells Based on the Biomechanics and Measurement of their Associated Physical Properties. CHEN Yisheng; LI Xiaohong; ZHANG Sai // Tianjin Medical Journal;Oct2014, Vol. 42 Issue 10, p1040 

    Stem cells transplantation had been proved to be effective in many clinical diseases. However, microenvironment can influence their growth, migration and differentiation. Under chemical microenvironment, such as hypoxia, neural growing factors and different kinds of ions, stem cells had been...

  • The clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of neuroinvasive listeriosis: a multinational study. Arslan, F.; Meynet, E.; Sunbul, M.; Sipahi, O.; Kurtaran, B.; Kaya, S.; Inkaya, A.; Pagliano, P.; Sengoz, G.; Batirel, A.; Kayaaslan, B.; Yıldız, O.; Güven, T.; Türker, N.; Midi, İ.; Parlak, E.; Tosun, S.; Erol, S.; Inan, A.; Oztoprak, N. // European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases;Jun2015, Vol. 34 Issue 6, p1213 

    The aim of this study was to determine the independent risk factors, morbidity, and mortality of central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Listeria monocytogenes. We retrospectively evaluated 100 episodes of neuroinvasive listeriosis in a multinational study in 21 tertiary care hospitals...

  • Pregnant women in chains? Mathieu, Deborah // Politics & the Life Sciences;Mar96, Vol. 15 Issue 1, p77 

    Opinion. Discusses what is referred to as maternal-fetal conflicts which was the topic at a pregnancy and substance abuse symposium. Information on the fetus; Information on the prevention of prenatal harm; Ways in which serious and preventable prenatal harm can be caused; Details on the use...

  • The case of Medea--a view of fetal-maternal conflict. Reid, Matthew C.; Gillett, Grant // Journal of Medical Ethics;Feb97, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p19 

    Examines the fetal-maternal conflict and the debate surrounding this, highlighting the ethical questions raised from this, through the use of a number of scenarios. Outline of the scenarios that raised issues surrounding fetal-maternal conflict, including the legendary tale of Medea; Major...

  • Mode of infection of Listeria organisms relies on exotoxin. Dale, David C.; Federman, Daniel D. // Cortlandt Forum;07/25/97, Vol. 10 Issue 7, p18 

    Describes the life cycle of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Proteins which allow attachment and ingestion by host cells; Production of exotoxin listeriolysin O.

  • On the Thermodynamics of Contact Interaction in an Atomic Force Microscope. Rekhviashvili, S. Sh. // Technical Physics;Oct2001, Vol. 46 Issue 10, p1335 

    Contact interaction in an atomic force microscope is considered in terms of the thermodynamic approach. It is shown that hysteresis observed when a sample is probed in the vertical direction is due to the surface energy-work thermodynamic cycle. The force of sample-tip interaction is calculated...

  • Atomic Force Microscope in a Contactless Mode: Peculiarities of Force Interactions. Rekhviashvili, S. Sh. // Technical Physics Letters;Jun2000, Vol. 26 Issue 6, p517 

    Forces of interaction between the atomic force microscope (AFM) probe and the surface of a solid are calculated with an allowance for the induced cantilever oscillations. A continuous approximation used in this work does not take into account discreteness of the sample and probe structures....

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics