The Nonlinear Relationship Between Education and Mortality: An Examination of Cohort, Race/Ethnic, and Gender Differences

Everett, Bethany G.; Rehkopf, David H.; Rogers, Richard G.
December 2013
Population Research & Policy Review;Dec2013, Vol. 32 Issue 6, p893
Academic Journal
Researchers investigating the relationship between education and mortality in industrialized countries have consistently shown that higher levels of education are associated with decreased mortality risk. The shape of the education–mortality relationship and how it varies by demographic group have been examined less frequently. Using the U.S. National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, which link the 1986 through 2004 NHIS to the National Death Index through 2006, we examine the shape of the education–mortality curve by cohort, race/ethnicity, and gender. Whereas traditional regression models assume a constrained functional form for the dependence of education and mortality, in most cases semiparametric models allow us to more accurately describe how the association varies by cohort, both between and within race/ethnic and gender subpopulations. Notably, we find significant changes over time in both the shape and the magnitude of the education–mortality gradient across cohorts of women and white men, but little change among younger cohorts of black men. Such insights into demographic patterns in education and mortality can ultimately help increase life expectancies.


Related Articles

  • Mortality and life expectancy of professional fire fighters in Hamburg, Germany: a cohort study 1950 - 2000. Wagner, Norbert L.; Berger, Jürgen; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Koch, Peter; Köchel, Anja; Peschke, Michel; Ossenbach, Trude // Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source;2006, Vol. 5, p27 

    Background: The healthy worker effect may hide adverse health effects in hazardous jobs, especially those where physical fitness is required. Fire fighters may serve as a good example because they sometimes are severely exposed to hazardous substances while on the other hand their physical...

  • Actuarial Fairness When Longevity Increases: An Evaluation of the Italian Pension System. Belloni, Michele; Maccheroni, Carlo // Geneva Papers on Risk & Insurance - Issues & Practice;Oct2013, Vol. 38 Issue 4, p638 

    This study analyses the actuarial characteristics of the Italian pension system throughout its transition from defined benefit (DB) to notional defined contribution (NDC) rules, taking into account expected increasing longevity. Computations rely on ad hoc projected cohort mortality tables based...

  • Sex mortality differences in the United States: the role of cohort smoking patterns. Preston, Samuel H.; Wang, Haidong // Demography;Nov2006, Vol. 43 Issue 4, p631 

    This article demonstrates that over the period 1948-2003, sex differences in mortality in the age range 50-84 widened and then narrowed on a cohort basis rather than on a period basis. The cohort with the maximum excess of male mortality was born shortly after the turn of the century. Three...

  • On the correspondence between CAL and lagged cohort life expectancy. Guillot, Michel; Hyun Sik Kim // Demographic Research;Jan-Jun2011, Vol. 24, p611 

    It has been established that under certain mortality assumptions, the current value of the Cross-sectional Average length of Life (CAL) is equal to the life expectancy for the cohort currently reaching its life expectancy. This correspondence is important, because the life expectancy for the...

  • Sharp upturn of life expectancy in the Netherlands: effect of more health care for the elderly? Mackenbach, Johan; Slobbe, Lany; Looman, Caspar; Heide, Agnes; Polder, Johan; Garssen, Joop // European Journal of Epidemiology;Dec2011, Vol. 26 Issue 12, p903 

    During the 1980s and 1990s life expectancy at birth has risen only slowly in the Netherlands. In 2002, however, the rise in life expectancy suddenly accelerated. We studied the possible causes of this remarkable development. Mortality data by age, gender and cause of death were analyzed using...

  • Analysis of air pollution mortality in terms of life expectancy changes: relation between time series, intervention, and cohort studies. Rabl, Ari // Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source;2006, Vol. 5, p1 

    Background: Information on life expectancy change is of great concern for policy makers, as evidenced by the discussions of the so-called "harvesting" issue (i.e. the question being, how large a loss each death corresponds to in the mortality results of time series studies). Methods: Whereas...

  • Mortality and Life Expectancy in Homeless Men and Women in Rotterdam: 2001–2010. Nusselder, Wilma J.; Slockers, Marcel T.; Krol, Luuk; Slockers, Colette T.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; van Beeck, Ed F. // PLoS ONE;Oct2013, Vol. 8 Issue 10, p1 

    Background: Data on mortality among homeless people are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to describe mortality patterns within a cohort of homeless adults in Rotterdam (the Netherlands) and to assess excess mortality as compared to the general population in that city. Methods: Based on...

  • Mortality among People with Severe Mental Disorders Who Reach Old Age: A Longitudinal Study of a Community-Representative Sample of 37892 Men. Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Yeap, Bu B.; Golledge, Jonathan; Norman, Paul E.; Flicker, Leon // PLoS ONE;Oct2014, Vol. 9 Issue 10, p1 

    Background: Severe mental illnesses are leading causes of disability worldwide. Their prevalence declines with age, possibly due to premature death. It is unclear, however, if people with severe mental disorders who reach older age still have lower life expectancy compared with their peers and...

  • Survival of Early Americans. Pike, Lisa; Fox, William P. // UMAP Journal;Summer2002, Vol. 23 Issue 2, p149 

    The article analyzes the survival rate or life expectancy of early Americans. Ecologists follow a cohort to determine age-specific mortality and survivorship curves for a population. Cohort is a group of individuals born within the identical time interval. Until all members of the cohort are...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics