A lengyel mezőgazdaság dekollektivizálásának útjai és következményei

September 2013
Multunk;2013, Issue 3, p60
Academic Journal
Following Stalin's death, the highest levels of party and state leadership were becoming more and more convinced that the political direction needed to be changed and this involved agriculture and in a larger sense the peasantry as well. Solving the increasing problem of food supply became essential, and the conviction was more and more pronounced that the timely agrarian policy was suppressing production. This idea evidently overruled the ideological requirement of continuing collectivisation with the given tools, as it clearly did not calculate with the economic consequences. The peasants essentially forced de-collectivisation. Although in the following period party leadership revived a moderate and gradual collectivisation, it never presented valuable achievements. The Polish leadership was not determined enough to make the decisive measure of taking the family farmsteads into public ownership. Their methods were gradual in nature and their effect would have become apparent only decades later. It is difficult to answer whether 1) the measures taken by the Polish leaders were really motivated by the intention of collectivisation or if they only wanted to satisfy the heads of the Kremlin; and 2) what the Soviet leadership really thought of the Polish policy. One thing is for sure: the lack of collectivisation was something Moscow regularly reproached the Poles with when discussing Polish political crises. In practice, the Soviet pressure was of little influence. The Polish peasants won the battle for keeping their own farms. But this came at a price. The productivity of small farms was low and more and more people were looking for work in cities, the image of which were defined by masses of peasant workers even in the 1980's.


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