In vitro activity of miltefosine as a single agent and in combination with voriconazole or posaconazole against uncommon filamentous fungal pathogens

Biswas, Chayanika; Sorrell, Tania C.; Djordjevic, Julianne T.; Zuo, Xiaoming; Jolliffe, Katrina A.; Chen, Sharon C.-A.
December 2013
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (JAC);Dec2013, Vol. 68 Issue 12, p2842
Academic Journal
Objectives Antifungal treatment of uncommon filamentous fungal infections is problematic. This study determined the in vitro susceptibility of miltefosine, as a single agent and in combination with posaconazole or voriconazole, against these pathogens. Methods Susceptibility to miltefosine of 34 uncommon filamentous fungi was tested using CLSI broth microdilution M38-A2 methodology. Twenty isolates were studied for potential synergy using miltefosine/posaconazole and miltefosine/voriconazole combinations and the chequerboard microdilution assay. Results MICs of miltefosine were high (in general, >8 mg/L) for most isolates compared with amphotericin B, echinocandins and the azoles. Miltefosine had greatest activity against Scedosporium spp., Lichtheimia corymbifera and Rhizomucor sp. (MICs ≤4 mg/L). Miltefosine in combination either with posaconazole or voriconazole demonstrated synergy [fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) ≤0.5] in 12 instances (11 isolates): miltefosine/posaconazole combinations were synergistic against 3 of 4 Fusarium oxysporum strains (FICI range 0.37–0.5) and 5 of 10 mucormycete strains (FICI range 0.06–0.5). The combination of voriconazole with miltefosine showed synergy against one Scedosporium prolificans isolate and three mucormycetes—a single strain each of L. corymbifera, Rhizopus oryzae and Rhizomucor sp. No antagonism was observed. Conclusions Miltefosine demonstrated synergy in 8/20 (40%) and 4/20 (20%) instances when combined with posaconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Synergy was most often observed against F. oxysporum and the mucormycetes. Study of miltefosine/azole combinations as a novel antifungal approach is indicated.


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