The First Ground-Level Enhancement of Solar Cycle 24 on 17 May 2012 and Its Real-Time Detection

Papaioannou, A.; Souvatzoglou, G.; Paschalis, P.; Gerontidou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.
January 2014
Solar Physics;Jan2014, Vol. 289 Issue 1, p423
Academic Journal
Ground-level enhancements (GLEs) are defined as sudden increases in the recorded intensity of cosmic-ray particles, usually by neutron monitors (NMs). In this work we present a time-shifting analysis (TSA) for the first arriving particles that were detected at Earth by NMs. We also present an automated real-time GLE alert that has been developed and is operating via the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB), which successfully identified the 17 May 2012 event, designated as GLE71. We discuss the time evolution of the real-time GLE alert that was issued for GLE71 and present the event onset-time for NMs that contributed to this GLE alert based on their archived data. A comparison with their real-time time-stamp was made to illustrate the necessity for high-resolution data ( e.g. 1-min time resolution) made available at every minute. The first results on the propagation of relativistic protons that have been recorded by NMs, as inferred by the TSA, imply that they are most probably accelerated by the coronal-mass-ejection-driven shock. Furthermore, the successful usage of NM data and the corresponding achievement of issuing a timely GLE alert are discussed.


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