Simultaneous Inhibition of Rhamnolipid and Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Synthesis and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 2-Bromoalkanoic Acids: Effect of Inhibitor Alkyl-Chain-Length

Gutierrez, Merced; Choi, Mun Hwan; Tian, Baoxia; Xu, Ju; Rho, Jong Kook; Kim, Myeong Ok; Cho, You-Hee; Yoon, Sung Chul
September 2013
PLoS ONE;Sep2013, Vol. 8 Issue 9, p1
Academic Journal
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen is known to synthesize rhamnolipid and polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) of which the acyl-group precursors (e.g., (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid) are provided through RhlA and PhaG enzyme, respectively, which have 57% gene sequence homology. The inhibitory effect of three 2-bromo-fatty acids of 2-bromohexanoic acid (2-BrHA), 2-bromooctanoic acid (2-BrOA) and 2-bromodecanoic acid (2-BrDA) was compared to get an insight into the biochemical nature of their probable dual inhibition against the two enzymes. The 2-bromo-compounds were found to inhibit rhamnolipid and PHA synthesis simultaneously in alkyl-chain-length dependent manner at several millimolar concentrations. The separate and dual inhibition of the RhlA and PhaG pathway by the 2-bromo-compounds in the wild-type cells was verified by investigating their inhibitory effects on the rhamnolipid and PHA synthesis in P. aeruginosa ΔphaG and ΔrhlA mutants. Unexpectedly, the order of inhibition strength was found 2-BrHA (≥90% at 2 mM) > 2-BrOA > 2-BrDA, equally for all of the rhamnolipids and PHA synthesis, swarming motility and biofilm formation. We suggest that the novel strongest inhibitor 2-BrHA could be potentially exploited to control the rhamnolipid-associated group behaviors of this pathogen as well as for its utilization as a lead compound in screening for antimicrobial agents based on new antimicrobial targets.


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