Effects of Wait Time When Communicating with Children Who Have Sensory and Additional Disabilities

Johnson, Nicole; Parker, Amy T.
September 2013
Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness;Sep/Oct2013, Vol. 107 Issue 5, p363
Academic Journal
Introduction: This study utilized wait-time procedures to determine if they are effective in helping children with deafblindness or multiple disabilities that include a visual impairment communicate in their home. Methods: A single subject with an alternating treatment design was used for the study. Zero- to one-second wait time was utilized before prompting for a response during three baseline sessions. This was compared to 5-, 10-, and 15-second wait-time increments used during six intervention sessions. Three participants with visual impairments, developmental disabilities, and communication delays participated in the study. One of the participants was deafblind. Results: All three participants responded twice as often during intervention phases as in baseline sessions. The results showed that 5-, 10-, and 15-second wait times were effective when reciprocally communicating with children who have multiple disabilities with a visual impairment or deafblindness. Discussion: The findings of this study determined that wait time was effective and showed promising results for children with deafblindness or multiple disabilities. The study indicated that such children need time to process what is being asked in order to respond appropriately. Prompting quickly can frustrate the child with disabilities. Limitations of the study included heterogeneity and fragile medical condition of the participants, distractions, and the need for future research on the use of this technique. Implications for practitioners: By utilizing at least five seconds of wait time, parents and educators may be able to see an increase in appropriate responses from the child. Wait-time interventions could increase opportunities for learning, social interaction, and communication, and are easily implemented with little to no training.


Related Articles

  • Enhancing Sustained Interaction Between Children with Congenital Deaf-Blindness and Their Educators. Janssen, Marleen J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Van Dijk, Jan P. M.; Huisman, Mark; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M. // Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness;Mar2012, Vol. 106 Issue 3, p177 

    The article discusses research which was conducted to investigate the impact the Diagnostic Intervention Model (DIM) had on sustained interaction between teachers and students with congenital deaf-blindness. Researchers evaluated six children and adolescents with congenital deaf-blindness. They...

  • Teaching Students With Intellectual Disability to Integrate Reading Skills: Effects of Text and Text-Based Lessons. Allor, Jill H.; Gifford, Diane B.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Miller, Saralyn J.; Cheatham, Jennifer P. // Remedial & Special Education;Nov2013, Vol. 34 Issue 6, p346 

    This multiple baseline study investigated the effectiveness of text-based reading lessons for students with intellectual disability (ID). Three students were selected who had not responded well to explicit and systematic reading instruction. They were provided with individual instruction in...

  • Visual Analysis in Single-Subject Research. Wall Emerson, Robert // Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness;Sep/Oct2015, Vol. 109 Issue 5, p422 

    A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article entitled "Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille and the Nemeth Code for Mathematics and Science Notation to Students Making the Transition from Print to Braille," by Sarah E. Ivy and Jonathan D. Hooper, published in the same...

  • Research: Children with Dyslexia Can Benefit from FM Hearing Systems.  // Hearing Review;Nov2012, Vol. 19 Issue 12, p58 

    The article reports a study according to which, children with dyslexia can benefit from frequency modulated (FM) hearing systems, which improve a child's auditory processing of sound and give them a better chance to make associations between wheat they hear and what these sounds mean.

  • RESIDENT ARTIST. SKINNER, RACHAEL // Exceptional Parent;Feb2014, Vol. 44 Issue 2, p38 

    The article profiles artist Alba Somoza. Topics discussed include her physical limitation due to cerebral palsy, love of art through expressionist paintings, and as an intern and docent at the Metropolitan Museum of Art since 2006. Also mentioned are her collaboration with Standing Tall Inc. as...

  • Friendship-Facilitation Strategies: What Do Students in Middle School Tell Us?  // Teaching Exceptional Children;Nov/Dec2005, Vol. 38 Issue 2, p52 

    The article presents information on the concepts of friendship for students with disabilities during the middle school years. During this time friends provide each other the support that may have been previously given by their own family. But usually friendship between them and normal students...

  • Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille and the Nemeth Code for Mathematics and Science Notation to Students Making the Transition from Print to Braille. Ivy, Sarah E.; Hooper, Jonathan D. // Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness;Sep/Oct2015, Vol. 109 Issue 5, p343 

    Introduction: Many students with adventitious vision loss or progressive vision loss need to transition from print to braille as a primary literacy medium. It is important that this transition is handled efficiently so that the student can have continued access to a literacy medium and make...

  • Beyond Talking About Books: Implications of the Reading Comprehension Instruction and Pedagogical Beliefs of a Special Educator Perceived as Effective. Hollenbeck, Amy R. Feiker // Learning Disability Quarterly;May2013, Vol. 36 Issue 2, p112 

    This investigation extends the study of the reading comprehension practices used with students with learning disabilities (LD) via a case study, exploring the beliefs and practices in reading comprehension of “Wendy,” a cross-categorical special educator nominated as effective in her...

  • Rethinking Education of Deaf Children in Zimbabwe: Challenges and Opportunities for Teacher Education. Musengi, Martin; Ndofirepi, Amasa; Shumba, Almon // Journal of Deaf Studies & Deaf Education;Jan2013, Vol. 18 Issue 1, p62 

    The study explores the communication challenges faced by teacher trainees in teaching deaf learners and the opportunities that they present. A critical disabilities study approach within the qualitative paradigm was employed to collect interview data from 14 trainee teachers (6 were men and 8...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics