CdS and Cd(OH)[sub 2] formation during Cd treatments of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)[sub 2] thin-film solar cell absorbers

Weinhardt, L.; Gleim, Th.; Fuchs, O.; Heske, C.; Umbach, E.; Bär, M.; Muffler, H.-J.; Fischer, Ch.-H.; Lux-Steiner, M. C.; Zubavichus, Y.; Niesen, T. P.; Karg, F.
January 2003
Applied Physics Letters;1/27/2003, Vol. 82 Issue 4, p571
Academic Journal
The surface modifications induced by treating Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)[sub 2] films in an aqueous ammonia hydroxide-based solution of Cd[sup 2+] ions—as used in record Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)[sub 2] solar cells without a CdS buffer layer—have been investigated for different Cd[sup 2+] concentrations. Employing a combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and x-ray emission spectroscopy, it is possible to distinguish two different surface modifications. For Cd[sup 2+] concentrations below 4.5 mM in the solution we observe the formation of a CdS monolayer, while higher Cd[sup 2+] concentrations lead to the additional deposition of a cadmium hydroxide film on the CdS/Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)[sub 2] surface.


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