Ferromagnetism in Mn-implanted ZnO:Sn single crystals

Norton, D. P.; Pearton, S. J.; Hebard, A. F.; Theodoropoulou, N.; Boatner, L. A.; Wilson, R. G.
January 2003
Applied Physics Letters;1/13/2003, Vol. 82 Issue 2, p239
Academic Journal
We have investigated the magnetic properties of Mn-implanted n-type ZnO single crystals that are codoped with Sn. Theory predicts that room-temperature carrier-mediated ferromagnetism should be possible in manganese-doped p-type ZnO, although Mn-doped n-type ZnO should not be ferromagnetic. While previous efforts report only low-temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped ZnO that is n type via shallow donors, we find evidence for ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature of ∼250 K in ZnO that is codoped with Mn and Sn. As a 4+ valence cation, Sn should behave as a doubly ionized donor, thus introducing states deep in the gap. Hysteresis is clearly observed in magnetization versus field curves. Differences in zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization persists up to ∼250 K for Sn-doped ZnO crystals implanted with 3 at. % Mn. Increasing the Mn concentration to 5 at. % significantly reduces the magnetic hysteresis. This latter observation is inconsistent with the origin for ferromagnetism being due to segregated secondary phases, and strongly suggests that a near-room-temperature dilute magnetic semiconducting oxide has been realized. Based on these results, ZnO doped with Mn and Sn may prove promising as a ferromagnetic semiconductor for spintronics.


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