A crosscutting review of plumbing products-related water efficiency and conservation

February 2013
Journal: American Water Works Association;Feb2013, Vol. 105 Issue 2, p39
Academic Journal
Reducing the water use of plumbing products-toilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads-has become a popular conservation measure, and improved technologies have created opportunities for further progress. Plumbing products do not operate in a vacuum, however. This article reviews the literature related to plumbing products and organizes it into a framework comprising the following categories: water use efficiency, product components, product performance, source water, energy, and plumbing and sewer infrastructure. This framework provides a starting point for professionals considering water efficiency and conservation measures to identify relevant technologies and trends as well as crosscutting issues that should be considered


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