TITLE

Which Came First, the Bacteria or the Egg? Gut Microbiota, Diet, and CVD

AUTHOR(S)
Brown, Donald J.
PUB. DATE
June 2013
SOURCE
Integrative Medicine Alert;Jun2013, Vol. 16 Issue 6, p61
SOURCE TYPE
Periodical
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Two prospective clinical studies, which were funded by the National Institutes of Health, were completed at the Lerner Research Institute of the Cleveland Clinic. In the first study, 40 healthy adults who had not taken antibiotics or probiotics in the past month underwent a phosphatidylcholine (PC) challenge during visit 1. For each participant, baseline blood and spot urine samples were obtained after an overnight fast (≥ 12 hours). At baseline, participants were given two large hard-boiled eggs including the yolk (approximately 500 mg of choline each) to be eaten within a 10-minute period together with 250 mg of deuterium-labeled PC (d9-PC), as a tracer. Serial venous blood sampling was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 hours after baseline, along with a 24-hour urine collection. These samples were used to measure trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and d9-TMAO, and choline and betaine levels were also measured in the plasma samples. Time-dependent increases in levels of both TMAO and d9-TMAO, as well other choline metabolites, were detected after the PC challenge. Urine samples also showed the presence of both TMAO and d9-TMAO, and there was a strong correlation between plasma levels of TMAO and absolute urine TMAO level (Spearman's r = 0.58, P < 0.001). Six participants then received metronidazole (500 mg twice daily) plus ciprofloxacin (500 mg/day) for 1 week. After receipt of the antibiotics, a repeat PC challenge was performed at visit 2. A third and final PC challenge was performed 1 month or more after the withdrawal of antibiotics (and subsequent "reacquisition of gut flora"), at visit 3. The same plasma and urine measurements were repeated at each visit. Antibiotic use resulted in a near complete suppression of detectable TMAO and d9-TMAO in both plasma and urine at visit 2. In contrast, the time courses of changes in free choline and betaine were not altered by antibiotic use. Following the PC challenge at visit 3, there was a notable time-dependent increase in plasma and urine TMAO and d9-TMAO. (See Table.) Finally, a second study (clinical outcomes) enrolled 4007 adults who were undergoing elective coronary angiography. During a 3-year follow-up, the relationship between fasting plasma levels of TMAO and incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or stroke) was studied. Increased levels of TMAO were associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (hazard ratio for highest vs lowest TMAO quartile, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.96-3.28; P < 0.001). An elevated TMAO level predicted an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after adjustment for traditional risk factors (P < 0.001), as well as in lower-risk groups.
ACCESSION #
88056446

 

Related Articles

  • digestive defenders: Pint-sized probiotics play a giant role in immune health. Tweed, Vera // Better Nutrition;Aug2011, Vol. 73 Issue 8, p18 

    The article presents an interview with integrative physician David Holland. When asked who needs probiotics, Holland says that everyone who has taken antibiotics needs them. He comments on the mechanisms by which probiotics work. Holland believes that the degree of benefits that a person will...

  • conflicting research on carnitine. Brechka, Nicole // Better Nutrition;Jun2013, Vol. 75 Issue 6, p6 

    In this article the author discusses an article within the issue that is concerned with the nutrient carnitine and reflects on two research studies on carnitine, one which was published in the journal "Nature Medicine" and one which was conducted at the Mayo Clinic, and had conflicting results...

  • Intake of Blueberry Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum Affects the Gut Microbiota of L-NAME Treated Rats. Jie Xu; Ahrén, Irini Lazou; Prykhodko, Olena; Olsson, Crister; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran // Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine (eCAM);2013, Vol. 2013, p1 

    Prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics can be used as means to regulate the microbiota to exert preventative or beneficial effects to the host. However, not much is known about the effect of the gut microbiota on hypertension which is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease and also a...

  • The Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Biomarkers of Vascular Wall Inflammation and Plaque Vulnerability in Subjects with High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease. A Randomized Trial. Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel-Angel; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fiol, Miquel; Arós, Fernando; Estruch, Ramon // PLoS ONE;Jun2014, Vol. 9 Issue 6, p1 

    Background: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. However, how the MD exerts its effects is not fully known. Aim: To assess the 12-month effects of two enhanced MDs compared to a low-fat diet on inflammatory...

  • Generation of a cre recombinase-conditional Nos1ap over-expression transgenic mouse. Auer, Dallas; Sysa-Shah, Polina; Bedja, Djahida; Simmers, Jessica; Pak, Evgenia; Dutra, Amalia; Cohn, Ronald; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Kapoor, Ashish // Biotechnology Letters;Jun2014, Vol. 36 Issue 6, p1179 

    Polymorphic non-coding variants at the NOS1AP locus have been associated with the common cardiac, metabolic and neurological traits and diseases. Although, in vitro gene targeting-based cellular and biochemical studies have shed some light on NOS1AP function in cardiac and neuronal tissue, to...

  • It’s time to talk about PROBIOTICS. JANES, BETH // Good Housekeeping;Oct2015, Vol. 261 Issue 4, p129 

    The article discusses probiotics which are live microorganisms that if given in right amount claim to benefit health. It focuses on the benefits of probiotics that include helping with digestion, eliminating bugs, and reduce high cholesterol. It also talks about the working of the probiotics...

  • Interaction between mecamylamine and nitric oxide in dorsal hippocampus using the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety. Piri M.; Shahab Z; Shahin MS // Feyz Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences;2013, Vol. 17 Issue 5, p429 

    Background: Nitric oxide and mecamylamine have an important role in anxiety-like behavior. Determining the site of action in the brain and interaction between these agents need to be investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible interaction between mecamylamine and nitric...

  • Retinal Arteriolar Diameters and Elevated Blood Pressure. Sharrett, A. Richey; Hubbard, Larry D.; Cooper, Lawton S.; Sorlie, Paul D.; Brothers, Rosemary J.; Nieto, F. Javier; Pinsky, Joan L.; Klein, Ronald // American Journal of Epidemiology;1999, Vol. 150 Issue 3, p263 

    Narrowing and other changes in retinal arterioles may reflect damage due to hypertension, which may predict stroke and other cardiovascular diseases independently of blood pressure level. Newly developed quantitive methods of assessing retinal narrowing are used to determine whether this sign is...

  • Increased Carotid Thickness in Subjects with Recently-Diagnosed Diabetes from Rural Cameroon. Napoli, Nicola; Zardi, Enrico; Strollo, Rocky; Arigliani, Michele; Daverio, Andrea; Olearo, Flaminia; Tosi, Daniele; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Scarpa, Filomena; Pedone, Claudio; Tegue Simo, Hervé Hilaire; Mottini, Giovanni; Pozzilli, Paolo; Sesti, Giorgio // PLoS ONE;Aug2012, Vol. 7 Issue 8, Special section p1 

    Background: We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of VIRGINIA BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SYSTEM

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics