Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) promotes cell proliferation in skeletal myoblasts in response to TGFβ/Smad3 signaling

Dionyssiou, Mathew G.; Salma, Jahan; Bevzyuk, Mariya; Wales, Stephanie; Zakharyan, Lusine; McDermott, John C.
June 2013
Skeletal Muscle;2013, Vol. 3 Issue 1, p1
Academic Journal
Background: Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) has been recently identified as a MEF2D target gene involved in neuronal cell survival. In addition, KLF6 and TGFβ have been shown to regulate each other's expression in non-myogenic cell types. Since MEF2D and TGFβ also fulfill crucial roles in skeletal myogenesis, we wanted to identify whether KLF6 functions in a myogenic context. Methods: KLF6 protein expression levels and promoter activity were analyzed using standard cellular and molecular techniques in cell culture. Results: We found that KLF6 and MEF2D are co-localized in the nuclei of mononucleated but not multinucleated myogenic cells and, that the MEF2 cis element is a key component of the KLF6 promoter region. In addition, TGFβ potently enhanced KLF6 protein levels and this effect was repressed by pharmacological inhibition of Smad3. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of MEK/ERK (1/2) signaling resulted in re-activation of the differentiation program in myoblasts treated with TGFβ, which is ordinarily repressed by TGFβ treatment. Conversely, MEK/ERK (1/2) inhibition had no effect on TGFβ-induced KLF6 expression whereas Smad3 inhibition negated this effect, together supporting the existence of two separable arms of TGFβ signaling in myogenic cells. Loss of function analysis using siRNA-mediated KLF6 depletion resulted in enhanced myogenic differentiation whereas TGFβ stimulation of myoblast proliferation was reduced in KLF6 depleted cells. Conclusions: Collectively these data implicate KLF6 in myoblast proliferation and survival in response to TGFβ with consequences for our understanding of muscle development and a variety of muscle pathologies.


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