Ureteroscopy in infants and preschool age children: technique and preliminary results

Mokhless, Ibrahim; Marzouk, Essam; Thabet, Alaa El-Din; Youssif, Mohamed; Fahmy, Ahmed
March 2012
Central European Journal of Urology;2012, Vol. 65 Issue 1, p30
Academic Journal
Introduction. We present our experience with the use of semirigid ureteroscopy for the treatment of ureteric stones in children less than or equal to 6 years of age. Material and methods. The records of 21 children (12 female, 9 male) with an average age of 4.7 years (range 8 months to 6 years) treated with semirigid ureteroscopy between June 2006 and July 2010 were reviewed. In 13 ureteral units 7Fr semirigid ureteroscopy was carried out in a retrograde manner to treat stone disease, while an adult ureteroscope (9.5 fr) was used in the remaining patients. Stones were located in the upper ureter in 2 cases, middle ureter in 2 cases, and lower ureter in 17 cases. Ureteral dilation was not required in all patients. Results. Stone size varied from 4 to 13 mm (mean 6 mm). The management of stones in 18 (90.7%) children was straightforward and a single ureteroscopy was required to clear the ureters. In 2 (6.2%) children, repeat ureteroscopy was undertaken to render the ureters stone free, and in 1 child (3.1%) it was not possible to remove the stone. Stones were fragmented with pneumatic lithotripsy in 12 cases and stones were removed mechanically without fragmentation in the remaining 9 cases. Intraoperative complications occurred in 2 (9.3%) children and included extravasation (1 patient), which was managed with ureteral stenting and stone upward migration (1 patient). Early postoperative complications included pyelonephritis (1 patient). Mean follow-up was 6.4 (3-36) months. Incidence of stricture at the site of stone impaction was not detected in any patients. None of the patients managed without a post-operative stent required subsequent intervention. Conclusions. In the hands of an experienced surgeon, ureteroscopy in young children can be a safe and efficient treatment for ureteral stones that can be performed without ureteral dilation. Routine ureteral stenting is not a requirement when the procedure is relatively atraumatic. Further studies and longer follow-up are necessary to determine the success of this technique.


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