Polymicrobial Infection with Major Periodontal Pathogens Induced Periodontal Disease and Aortic Atherosclerosis in Hyperlipidemic ApoEnull Mice

Rivera, Mercedes F.; Lee, Ju-Youn; Aneja, Monika; Goswami, Vishalkant; Liu, Liying; Velsko, Irina M.; Chukkapalli, Sasanka S.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Chen, Hao; Lucas, Alexandra R.; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya N.
February 2013
PLoS ONE;Feb2013, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p1
Academic Journal
Periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerosis are both polymicrobial and multifactorial and although observational studies supported the association, the causative relationship between these two diseases is not yet established. Polymicrobial infection-induced periodontal disease is postulated to accelerate atherosclerotic plaque growth by enhancing atherosclerotic risk factors of orally infected Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoEnull) mice. At 16 weeks of infection, samples of blood, mandible, maxilla, aorta, heart, spleen, and liver were collected, analyzed for bacterial genomic DNA, immune response, inflammation, alveolar bone loss, serum inflammatory marker, atherosclerosis risk factors, and aortic atherosclerosis. PCR analysis of polymicrobial-infected (Porphyromonas gingivalis [P. gingivalis], Treponema denticola [T. denticola], and Tannerella forsythia [T. forsythia]) mice resulted in detection of bacterial genomic DNA in oral plaque samples indicating colonization of the oral cavity by all three species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected P. gingivalis and T. denticola within gingival tissues of infected mice and morphometric analysis showed an increase in palatal alveolar bone loss (p<0.0001) and intrabony defects suggesting development of periodontal disease in this model. Polymicrobial-infected mice also showed an increase in aortic plaque area (p<0.05) with macrophage accumulation, enhanced serum amyloid A, and increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides. A systemic infection was indicated by the detection of bacterial genomic DNA in the aorta and liver of infected mice and elevated levels of bacterial specific IgG antibodies (p<0.0001). This study was a unique effort to understand the effects of a polymicrobial infection with P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia on periodontal disease and associated atherosclerosis in ApoEnull mice.


Related Articles

  • Activation of the Innate Immune System in Atherosclerotic Disease. Oude Nijhuis, M. M.; van Keulen, J. K.; Pasterkamp, G.; Quax, P. H.; V. de Kleijn, D. P. // Current Pharmaceutical Design;Apr2007, Vol. 13 Issue 10, p983 

    Innate immunity is the first line of defence against invading micro-organisms. The family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are carried by the invading micro-organisms. Infectious pathogens have been implicated to play an important role...

  • 68Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide: biodistribution and binding into atherosclerotic plaques in mice. Haukkala, Johanna; Laitinen, Iina; Luoto, Pauliina; Iveson, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Karlsen, Hege; Cuthbertson, Alan; Laine, Jukka; Leppänen, Pia; Ylä-Herttula, Seppo; Knuuti, Juhani; Roivainen, Anne // European Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging;Dec2009, Vol. 36 Issue 12, p2058 

    Increased expression of αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin is involved in angiogenesis and the inflammatory process in atherosclerotic plaques. The novel 68Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide binds with high affinity to αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of the...

  • The neuroimmune guidance cue netrin-1 promotes atherosclerosis by inhibiting the emigration of macrophages from plaques. van Gils, Janine M; Derby, Merran C; Fernandes, Luciana R; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Ray, Tathagat D; Rayner, Katey J; Parathath, Sajesh; Distel, Emilie; Feig, Jessica L; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I; Rayner, Alistair J; McDonald, Thomas O; O'Brien, Kevin D; Stuart, Lynda M; Fisher, Edward A; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Moore, Kathryn J // Nature Immunology;Feb2012, Vol. 13 Issue 2, p136 

    Atherosclerotic plaque formation is fueled by the persistence of lipid-laden macrophages in the artery wall. The mechanisms by which these cells become trapped, thereby establishing chronic inflammation, remain unknown. Here we found that netrin-1, a neuroimmune guidance cue, was secreted by...

  • The Systemic Immune State of Super-shedder Mice Is Characterized by a Unique Neutrophil-dependent Blunting of TH1 Responses. Gopinath, Smita; Hotson, Andrew; Johns, Jennifer; Nolan, Garry; Monack, Denise // PLoS Pathogens;Jun2013, Vol. 9 Issue 6, p1 

    Host-to-host transmission of a pathogen ensures its successful propagation and maintenance within a host population. A striking feature of disease transmission is the heterogeneity in host infectiousness. It has been proposed that within a host population, 20% of the infected hosts, termed...

  • Periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. A controlled clinical and laboratory trial.  // British Dental Journal;3/26/2005, Vol. 198 Issue 6, p345 

    Reveals that no periodontal pathogens were found in atheromatous plaques, according to the abstract of the article "Periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. A controlled clinical and laboratory trial," by F. Cairo and C. Gaeta et al.

  • Periodontal Pathogen Accelerates Lipid Peroxidation and Atherosclerosis. Jia, R.; Kurita-Ochiai, T.; Oguchi, S.; Yamamoto, M. // Journal of Dental Research;Mar2013, Vol. 92 Issue 3, p247 

    Recent studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. We previously reported that intravenous challenge with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) accelerated atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient spontaneously hyperlipidemic (Apoeshl)...

  • Periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques isolated from patients with chronic periodontitis.  // British Dental Journal;11/25/2006, Vol. 201 Issue 10, p649 

    Presents abstracts of the article "Periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques isolated from patients with chronic periodontitis," by C. Padilla and O. Lobos. It has been mentioned that several studies indicated possible links between cardiovascular and periodontal diseases. In this context,...

  • Erratum.  // Journal of Clinical Investigation;Feb2012, Vol. 122 Issue 2, p783 

    A correction to the article "Genetic inactivation of IL-1 signaling enhances atherosclerotic plaque instability and reduces outward vessel remodeling in advanced atherosclerosis in mice," that was published in the previous issue of the journal is presented.

  • Promoting regression of atherosclerotic plaques.  // Journal of Clinical Investigation;Dec2010, Vol. 120 Issue 12, p4165 

    The article reports on the study which hoped to identify potential therapies that promote regression of atherosclerotic plaques in mice models.


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics