Tumor Stress-Induced Phosphoprotein1 (STIP1) as a Prognostic Biomarker in Ovarian Cancer

Chao, Angel; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Hsueh, Swei; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chiao-Yun; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chen, Hsi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Wang, Tzu-Hao
February 2013
PLoS ONE;Feb2013, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p1
Academic Journal
Stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1) has been recently identified as a released biomarker in human ovarian cancer. In addition, STIP1 secreted by human ovarian cancer cells has been shown to promote tumor cell proliferation by binding to ALK2 (activin A receptor, type II-like kinase 2) and activating the SMAD-ID3 signaling pathways. In this study, a total of 330 ovarian cancer tumor samples were evaluated for STIP1 expression by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for a possible correlation with patient characteristics and survival. The quantification of immunoreactivity was accomplished by applying an immunohistochemical scoring system (histoscore). Patients with high-level STIP1 expression (histoscore ≥169) had a significantly worse survival (high STIP1, mean survival time = 76 months; low STIP1, mean survival time = 112 months; P<0.0001). Moreover, STIP1 histoscores were significantly higher in high-grade tumors (grade 3) than in low-grade (grade 1–2) malignancies (P<0.0001), suggesting that STIP1 may be a proxy for tumor aggressiveness. The results of multivariable analysis revealed that high STIP1 histoscores, advanced stages, histologic types, and the presence of residual disease (≥2 cm) were independent predictors of poor prognosis. The addition of STIP1 histoscores improved the prediction of overall and progression-free survival rates in the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. The treatment of ovarian cancer cells with recombinant STIP1 stimulated cell proliferation and migration, but co-treatment with anti-STIP1 antibodies abrogated this effect. Our findings suggest that STIP1 expression may be related to prognosis and that the STIP1 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic target for human ovarian cancer.


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