The Effect of Heparan Sulfate Application on Bone Formation during Distraction Osteogenesis

Gdalevitch, Marie; Kasaai, Bahar; Alam, Norine; Dohin, Bruno; Lauzier, Dominique; Hamdy, Reggie C.
February 2013
PLoS ONE;Feb2013, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p1
Academic Journal
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are recognized for their ability to induce bone formation in vivo and in vitro. Their osteogenic and osteoinductive properties are tightly regulated by the secretion of specific BMP antagonists, which have been shown to physically bind and sometimes be blocked by the extracellular proteoglycan heparan sulphate side chains (from hereon referred to as HS). The purpose of this study was to investigate if local application of 5 µg of HS proteoglycan to a bone regenerate site in a mouse model of distraction osteogenesis (DO) can accelerate bone healing and affect the expression of key members of the BMP signaling pathway. DO was performed on the right tibia of 115 adult male wild-type mice. At mid-distraction (day 11), half the group was injected locally with 5 µg of HS, while the other half was injected with saline. The mice were sacrificed at 2 time-points: mid-consolidation (34 days) and full consolidation (51 days). The distracted tibial zone was then collected for analysis by μCT, radiology, biomechanical testing, immunohistochemistry, and histology. While μCT data showed no statistically significant difference in bone formation, the results of biomechanical testing in stiffness and ultimate force were significantly lower in the HS-injected bones at 51 days, compared to controls. Immunohistochemistry results also suggested a decrease in expression of several key members of the BMP signaling pathway at 34 days. Furthermore, wound dehiscence and infection rates were significantly elevated in the HS group compared to the controls, which resulted in a higher rate of euthanasia in the treatment group. Our findings demonstrate that exogenous application of 5 µg of HS in the distracted gap of a murine model had a negative impact on bone and wound healing.


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