miR-221/222 Compensates for Skp2-Mediated p27 Degradation and Is a Primary Target of Cell Cycle Regulation by Prostacyclin and cAMP

Castagnino, Paola; Kothapalli, Devashish; Hawthorne, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Shu-Lin; Xu, Tina; Rao, Shilpa; Yung, Yuval; Assoian, Richard K.
February 2013
PLoS ONE;Feb2013, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p1
Academic Journal
p27kip1 (p27) is a cdk-inhibitory protein with an important role in the proliferation of many cell types. SCFSkp2 is the best studied regulator of p27 levels, but Skp2-mediated p27 degradation is not essential in vivo or in vitro. The molecular pathway that compensates for loss of Skp2-mediated p27 degradation has remained elusive. Here, we combine vascular injury in the mouse with genome-wide profiling to search for regulators of p27 during cell cycling in vivo. This approach, confirmed by RT-qPCR and mechanistic analysis in primary cells, identified miR-221/222 as a compensatory regulator of p27. The expression of miR221/222 is sensitive to proteasome inhibition with MG132 suggesting a link between p27 regulation by miRs and the proteasome. We then examined the roles of miR-221/222 and Skp2 in cell cycle inhibition by prostacyclin (PGI2), a potent cell cycle inhibitor acting through p27. PGI2 inhibited both Skp2 and miR221/222 expression, but epistasis, ectopic expression, and time course experiments showed that miR-221/222, rather than Skp2, was the primary target of PGI2. PGI2 activates Gs to increase cAMP, and increasing intracellular cAMP phenocopies the effect of PGI2 on p27, miR-221/222, and mitogenesis. We conclude that miR-221/222 compensates for loss of Skp2-mediated p27 degradation during cell cycling, contributes to proteasome-dependent G1 phase regulation of p27, and accounts for the anti-mitogenic effect of cAMP during growth inhibition.


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