A Systematic Examination of Colour Development in Synthetic Ultramarine According to Historical Methods

Hamerton, Ian; Tedaldi, Lauren; Eastaugh, Nicholas
February 2013
PLoS ONE;Feb2013, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p1
Academic Journal
A number of historical texts are investigated to ascertain the optimum conditions for the preparation of synthetic ultramarine, using preparative methods that would have been available to alchemists and colour chemists of the nineteenth century. The effect of varying the proportion of sulphur in the starting material on the colour of the final product is investigated. The optimum preparation involves heating a homogenised, pelletised mixture of kaolin (100 parts), sodium carbonate (100 parts), bitumen emulsion (or any ‘sticky’ carbon source) (12 parts) and sulphur (60 parts) at 750°C for ca. 4 hours. At this stage the ingress of air should be limited. The sample is allowed to cool in the furnace to 500°C, the ingress of air is permitted and additional sulphur (30 parts) is introduced before a second calcination step is undertaken at 500°C for two hours. The products obtained from the optimum synthesis have CIE ranges of x  = 0.2945-0.3125, y  = 0.2219–0.2617, Y  = 0.4257−0.4836, L* = 3.8455–4.3682, a*  = 4.2763–7.6943, b* = −7.6772–(−)3.3033, L  = 3.8455–4.3682, C = 5.3964–10.8693, h = 315.0636–322.2562. The values are calculated using UV/visible near infrared spectra using Lazurite [1], under D65 illumination, and the 1931 2° observer.


Related Articles

  • H-Production on New BaTiRhO Catalyst via the Steam Reforming of CH for H-SCR Applications. Mondragón Rodríguez, G.; Gönüllü, Y.; Saruhan, B. // Topics in Catalysis;May2013, Vol. 56 Issue 1-8, p397 

    Rh-doped perovskites BaTiRhO and Rh-BaTiO were prepared by a new synthesis method and analyzed by XRD and FE-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of HCl for sol-formation was studied, HCl improves the sol formation but chlorine remains in the catalyst even after calcination treatment...

  • Processes in multicomponent mixtures of chemically reacting gases for nonadiabatic and open uniform thermodynamic systems. Smirnov, A. // Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering;May2007, Vol. 41 Issue 3, p279 

    This paper reports the results of chemical-thermodynamic analysis of processes in spatially uniform multicomponent mixtures of chemically reacting gases under the conditions of open nonadiabatic systems, that is, with supply of heat, substance, and external mechanical work. At each trajectory...

  • Synthesis of New Substituted Chromen[4,3-c]pyrazol-4-ones and Their Antioxidant Activities. Al-Ayed, Abdullah Sulaiman // Molecules;Dec2011, Vol. 16 Issue 12, p10292 

    A series of new coumarin derivatives 4 containing a 4-arylbut-3-en-2-one moiety were synthesized by condensation of 3-acetylcoumarin 1 with aryl aldehydes 2 in chloroform in the presence of piperidine. The interactions of 3-formyl-4-chlorocoumarin (3) with nitrogen-containg nucleophiles leading...

  • Mechanisms of rearrangements of 3-isochalcogenocyanato-1,2,3-triphenylcyclopropenes. Dushenko, G.; Mikhailova, O.; Mikhailov, I.; Minyaev, R.; Minkin, V. // Doklady Chemistry;Apr2011, Vol. 437 Issue 2, p98 

    The article focuses on the pathways of the reaction for the migration of -NCX groups in 3-isochalcogenocyanato-1,2,3-triphenylcyclopropenes (1-3) in the gas phase and solutions through B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) density functional theory (DFT) computations. It sates that the structures of the...

  • Experimental and Theoretical Approach to the Assessment of Stability Criteria for Safe Transport of Ammonium Nitrate Based Emulsions. Fabiano, B.; Kersten, R. J. A.; Barbucci, A.; Boers, M. N. // Chemical & Biochemical Engineering Quarterly;Sep2013, Vol. 27 Issue 3, p307 

    The safety issues connected to storage and transportation of ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate emulsions are to be considered of primary importance, as demonstrat-ed by the Tolouse explosion and various handling and storage accidents in different countries. This paper is focused on the...

  • Effect of calcination temperatures of Cu/CeO2- containing Co on physiochemical properties and catalytic activity to selective CO oxidation. PORNTHIP Aunbamrung; AKKARAT Wongkaew // Advanced Materials Research;2016, Vol. 1131, p175 

    The CuO/CeO2-Co3O4 catalysts were prepared via co-precipitation at different calcination temperatures and evaluated catalytic activities in the reaction of selective CO oxidation. The catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD and FESEM-EDX techniques. As determined by BET studies, the catalysts...

  • Saccharin Reaction with Cyanide. Drochioiu, Gabi; Deleanu, Calin; Rusu, Elena; Mangalagiu, Ionel // Letters in Organic Chemistry;Jun2011, Vol. 8 Issue 5, p315 

    No abstract available.

  • Potassium citrate mixture: Soothing but not harmless? Gabriel, Roger // British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition);12/5/1987, Vol. 295 Issue 6611, p1487 

    Critics on studies made regarding negative effects of potassium citrate mixture. Inadequacy of the presented data; Failure to measure urinary variables; Suggestions made by the author.

  • Cotranslational Protein Folding and Terminus Hydrophobicity. Srivastava, Sheenal; Patton, Yumi; Fisher, David W.; Wood, Graham R. // Advances in Bioinformatics;2011, p1 

    Peptides fold on a time scale that is much smaller than the time required for synthesis, whence all proteins potentially fold cotranslationally to some degree (followed by additional folding events after release from the ribosome). In this paper, in three different ways, we find that...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics