Graphene as transparent electrode for direct observation of hole photoemission from silicon to oxide

Yan, Rusen; Zhang, Qin; Kirillov, Oleg A.; Li, Wei; Basham, James; Boosalis, Alex; Liang, Xuelei; Jena, Debdeep; Richter, Curt A.; Seabaugh, Alan C.; Gundlach, David J.; Xing, Huili G.; Nguyen, N. V.
March 2013
Applied Physics Letters;3/25/2013, Vol. 102 Issue 12, p123106
Academic Journal
We demonstrate the application of graphene as collector material in internal photoemission (IPE) spectroscopy, which enables direct observation of both electron and hole injections at a Si/Al2O3 interface and overcomes the long-standing difficulty of detecting holes in IPE measurements. The observed electron and hole barrier heights are 3.5 ± 0.1 eV and 4.1 ± 0.1 eV, respectively. Thus, the bandgap of Al2O3 can be deduced to be 6.5 ± 0.2 eV, in good agreement with the value obtained by ellipsometry analysis. Our modeling effort reveals that, by using graphene, the carrier injection from the emitter is significantly enhanced and the contribution from the collector electrode is minimal.


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