June 2012
Turkish Journal of Agricultural Economics;Jun2012, Vol. 18 Issue 1, p23
Academic Journal
This study reviews importance of agricultural protectionism during GATT period, relevant measurement issues, and changes in agricultural protectionism within the time in selected countries based on the composition supports. Trade negotiations which are held between countries after the Second World War examined with the respect of agriculture in WTO and agricultural protectionism section. When measuring the levels of agricultural protection, OECD method, the most widespread one, was employed, and related criticisms were discussed. In order to determine levels of protection, 11 countries, which are thought to have a significant role in the world agricultural markets and/or in terms of protectionism, were selected. These countries were grouped as low, medium and high protection countries, based on their Nominal Assistance Coefficients, Further, differing applications and specific conditions of those countries were discussed. Producer Support Estimate Percentages, Nominal Assistance Coefficient and Nominal Protection Coefficient were used to analyze changes in the protection level of the countries. Nominal Assistance Coefficients are found to be as follows: 1.04-1.11 in low protection countries, 1.16-1.43 in medium protection countries and 2.12-2.76 in high protection countries. Although share of decoupled payments in support compositions increases, share of market price support causing price distortions is still high. Based on nominal protection coefficient, it can be said that countries are protecting staple crops more. Hence, it can be concluded that agriculture will remain as the most controversial issue in free trade negotiations.


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