In vivo neurochemical imaging of olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

Bohnen, Nicolaas; Müller, Martijn
April 2013
Journal of Neural Transmission;Apr2013, Vol. 120 Issue 4, p571
Academic Journal
Olfactory dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and has been attributed to early deposition of α-synuclein pathology in olfactory areas. The pathophysiology of olfactory dysfunction in PD, however, remains poorly understood. Changes in odor identification suggest in part impairment in odor memory, possibly due to hippocampal dysfunction. Olfactory dysfunction occurs also in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and increases with severity of dementia. Cholinergic degeneration is not only a feature of AD but can also occur in PD, at least in a subset of patients with cognitive changes. We reported previously that impaired odor identification in early PD is more closely correlated with hippocampal dopaminergic than nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation. Results of our multi-tracer PET studies show that odor identification deficits in PD are best predicted by cholinergic denervation and to a lesser extent by dopaminergic denervation. These results suggest that olfactory dysfunction in PD may have multiple components including hippocampal dysfunction secondary to cholinergic and dopaminergic denervations. Olfactory dysfunction in PD may be the most marked in subjects at risk of incipient dementia, and may reflect the transition of PD toward a stage with more heterogeneous multi-system neurodegenerations. Our preliminary imaging data do not support a significant contribution of amyloidopathy or serotoninergic denervation to abnormal olfactory functions in PD, at least in the absence of dementia. We outline how progressive changes in olfaction may be used as a biomarker of cholinergic denervation and cognitive decline in PD patients. We will discuss also the utility of olfactory testing as an early screening test for neurodegeneration.


Related Articles

  • Imaging brain regional and cortical laminar effects of selective D3 agonists and antagonists. Ji-Kyung Choi; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Chen, Y.; Grundt, Peter; Sarkar, Susanta; Newman, Amy H.; Jenkins, Bruce G. // Psychopharmacology;Oct2010, Vol. 212 Issue 1, p59 

    Dopamine D3 receptors (D3R) may be important therapeutic targets for both drug abuse and dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease; however, little is known about their functional circuitry. We wished to determine if D3R antagonists SB-277011 and PG-01037 and D3R-preferring agonist 7-OH-DPAT are...

  • Brain imaging to be on track for improving diagnosis and pathophysiological insights in neuropsychiatric diseases. Schmitt, Andrea; Falkai, Peter // European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience;Oct2013, Vol. 263 Issue 7, p537 

    No abstract available.

  • Adult neurogenesis in Parkinson's disease. Marxreiter, Franz; Regensburger, Martin; Winkler, Jürgen // Cellular & Molecular Life Sciences;Feb2013, Vol. 70 Issue 3, p459 

    Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affects 1-2 % of humans aged 60 years and older. The diagnosis of PD is based on motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability associated with the striatal dopaminergic deficit that is...

  • Differential Expression of Alpha-Synuclein in Hippocampal Neurons. Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tsujimura, Atsushi; Tatebe, Harutsugu; Miyata, Seiji; Tokuda, Takahiko; Mizuno, Toshiki; Tanaka, Masaki // PLoS ONE;Feb2014, Vol. 9 Issue 2, p1 

    α-Synuclein is the major pathological component of synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Recent studies have demonstrated that α-synuclein also plays important roles in the release of synaptic vesicles and synaptic membrane recycling in healthy...

  • T1rho (T) MR imaging in Alzheimer' disease and Parkinson's disease with and without dementia. Haris, Mohammad; Singh, Anup; Cai, Kejia; Davatzikos, Christos; Trojanowski, John; Melhem, Elias; Clark, Christopher; Borthakur, Arijitt // Journal of Neurology;Mar2011, Vol. 258 Issue 3, p380 

    In the current study, we aim to measure T1rho ( T) in the hippocampus in the brain of control, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and PD patients with dementia (PDD), and to determine efficacy of T in differentiating these cohorts. With informed consent, 53 AD patients, 62 PD...

  • Association of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor val66met polymorphism with magnetic resonance spectroscopic markers in the human hippocampus: in vivo evidence for effects on the glutamate system. Gruber, Oliver; Hasan, Alkomiet; Scherk, Harald; Wobrock, Thomas; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Ekawardhani, Savira; Schmitt, Andrea; Backens, Martin; Reith, Wolfgang; Meyer, Jobst; Falkai, Peter // European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience;Feb2012, Vol. 262 Issue 1, p23 

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of synaptic plasticity and has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of psychotic disorders, with particular emphasis on dysfunctions of the hippocampus. The aim of the present study was to replicate...

  • Patients with rest-tremor and scans with ipsilateral dopaminergic deficit. Aguirregomozcorta, Maria; Stamelou, Maria; Antonini, Angelo; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Prvulovich, Liz; Edwards, Mark; Dickson, John; Bhatia, Kailash // Journal of Neurology;Apr2013, Vol. 260 Issue 4, p1132 

    Dopamine transporter imaging is typically abnormal in Parkinson's disease and shows reduced striatal uptake, which is typically greater contralateral to the clinically more affected side. However, tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease patients may have significantly lower uptake in the striatum...

  • Neurological diseases and pain. Borsook, David // Brain: A Journal of Neurology;Feb2012, Vol. 135 Issue 2, p320 

    Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and...

  • Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration. Ferrara, Joseph; Jankovic, Joseph // Journal of Neurology;Mar2009, Vol. 256 Issue 3, p320 

    Cirrhosis and its co-morbidities may cause a variety of neurological complications, the most common being bouts of toxic metabolic encephalopathy. A proportion of patients with chronic liver disease develop acquired hepatocerebral degeneration (AHD), a chronic progressive neurological syndrome...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics