Damp-heat induced sulfate formation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)[sub 2]-based thin film solar cells

Heske, C.; Groh, U.; Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Holder, B.; Umbach, E.; Bostedt, C.; Terminello, L. J.; Zweigart, S.; Niesen, T. P.; Karg, F.
December 2002
Applied Physics Letters;12/9/2002, Vol. 81 Issue 24, p4550
Academic Journal
To investigate the impact of damp heat treatments on the electronic and chemical structure of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)[sub 2]-based thin film solar cells, we have performed a detailed soft x-ray emission study of the ZnO/Culn(S,Se)[sub 2] and ZnO/CdS/Culn(S,Se)[sub 2] interfaces. By comparing the sulfur L[sub 2,3] emission spectra of pristine and damp-heat treated samples, we find a sulfate formation at the ZnO/Culn(S,Se)[sub 2] and the ZnO/CdS interface. The intensity behavior as a function of ZnO film thickness further reveals a diffusion of sulfur atoms into the ZnO film, leading to the formation of zinc sulfate in the ZnO window layer of damp-heat-treated Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)[sub 2]-based solar cells.


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