Blackwater fever like in murine malaria

Rivera, Norma; Romero, Samanta; Menchaca, Ángeles; Zepeda, Armando; García, Luis; Salas, Gerardo; Romero, Laura; Malagón, Filiberto
March 2013
Parasitology Research;Mar2013, Vol. 112 Issue 3, p1021
Academic Journal
Blackwater fever (BWF) is the term used to designate the occurrence of hemoglobin pigments in the urine of patients infected with malaria parasites. BWF is more often associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in man. The pathogenesis of BWF has not been explained satisfactorily. In the present study, the clinical and pathological observations made upon CD1 mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii yoelii lethal strain with clinical signs of hemoglobinuria and acute renal failure were evaluated. From the 40 P. yoelii yoelii-infected mice, 14 presented hemoglobinuria. In the observations, it was emphasized that hemoglobinuria occurred in the animals 1-2 days before they die. At 6 days post-infection, infected hemoglobinuric mice (HM) exhibited clinical signs such as dark red urine, apnea, and evident oliguria and hematuria; urine microscopical examination showed very few red blood cells. The entire non hemoglobinuric infected mice had a high parasitemia preceding the time of death, while the HM parasitemia was just detectable. In HM, marked hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, and renal and hepatic dysfunction were observed with the blood chemistry analysis at 6 days post-infection. Severe renal lesions were demonstrated in histopathological and scanning electron microscopy samples. Occlusion and necrosis of convoluted tubules were the main lesions found. The conditions required for the experimental production of hemoglobinuria in CD1 mouse infected by P. yoelii yoelii is still unknown. The clinical picture of a BWF, like in our rodents, was produced exclusively by the interaction between the parasite and its host. Results showed that hemoglobinuria in CD1 mice infected with P. yoelii yoelii and BWF in man infected with P. falciparum are similar in their pathogenesis.


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