Nanometer-scale pores in low-k dielectric films probed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Wang, C. L.; Weber, M. H.; Lynn, K. G.; Rodbell, K. P.
December 2002
Applied Physics Letters;12/2/2002, Vol. 81 Issue 23, p4413
Academic Journal
We measured positron annihilation lifetime spectra in mesoporous low dielectric constant (low-k) methyl-silsesquioxane (MSSQ) films versus porogen load φ from φ = 0% to 50%. The ortho-positronium lifetime parameters were obtained using both the maximum entropy and discrete lifetime analyses. Open and closed porosity distributions and the average radius of closed pores were obtained. The total porosity and the fraction of open/closed porosities were evaluated. The total porosity increases linearly with porogen load, consistent with the porosity obtained from density measurements. Open porosity occurs from 20% porogen load upwards.


Related Articles

  • TGRS measurements of the positron annihilation spectrum from the galactic center. Harris, M. J.; Teegarden, B. J.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Palmer, D. M.; Ramaty, R.; Seifert, H. // AIP Conference Proceedings;2000, Vol. 510 Issue 1, p31 

    The TGRS experiment on board the Wind spacecraft includes a Ge detector with very high resolution (3–4 keV FWHM) at energies around 511 keV. To take advantage of WIND’s fixed pointing at the south ecliptic pole and its 3 s rotation, TGRS also includes a Pb occulter fixed on the...

  • Investigations of positron annihilation radiation. Milne, P. A.; Kurfess, J. D.; Kinzer, R. L.; Leising, M. D.; Dixon, D. D. // AIP Conference Proceedings;2000, Vol. 510 Issue 1, p21 

    By combining OSSE, SMM and TGRS observations of the galactic center region, Purcell et al. (1997) and Cheng et al. (1997) produced the first maps of galactic positron annihilation. That data-set has been augmented with additional data, both recent and archival, and re-analyzed to improve the...

  • Probing capped and uncapped mesoporous low-dielectric constant films using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Petkov, Mihail P.; Weber, Marc H.; Lynn, Kelvin G.; Rodbell, Kenneth P. // Applied Physics Letters;10/16/2000, Vol. 77 Issue 16 

    We have measured uncapped mesoporous low-dielectric-constant films using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), a nondestructive technique, which yields both pore-size distributions and the threshold for pore interconnectivity. Pairs of fully cured capped and uncapped identical...

  • Positron annihilation in solid, liquid and undercooled melts of Co[sub 80] Pd[sub 20]. B�hrer, C.; Holzwarth, U.; Maier, K.; Platzek, D.; Reske, J. // Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing;1996, Vol. 63 Issue 2, p191 

    Positron annihilation measurements have been performed in solid, liquid and undercooled Co[sub 800oPd[sub 20] alloy using electromagnetic levitation as containerless processing method. The formation enthalpy for a single vacancy is H[sub 1v] = (1.7 � 0.1) eV. In the melt, the thermal...

  • Effect of iodine sorption on the free volume of polycarbonate. Ramani, R.; Raganathaiah, C. // Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing;1997, Vol. 64 Issue 2, p161 

    The effect of iodine sorption on the free volume of polycarbonate is investigated by Positron Annihilation Lifetime method. The observed results are interpreted in terms of the Charge Transfer Complex formation and precipitation of iodine at the initial and final stages of sorption,...

  • A simple positron lifetime spectrometer for a magnetically guided low-energy beam. Szpala, Stanislaw; Petkov, Mihail P.; Lynn, Kelvin G. // Review of Scientific Instruments;Jan2002, Vol. 73 Issue 1, p147 

    We present a new, simple, and inexpensive positron lifetime spectrometer intended for the depth-resolved characterization of thin films and buried interfaces. The spectrometer operates on a conventional magnetically guided positron beam with energies ranging from 1 to ∼50 keV. Given is a...

  • Detection of hydrogen-plasma-induced defects in Si by positron annihilation. Asoka-Kumar, P.; Stein, H.J. // Applied Physics Letters;3/28/1994, Vol. 64 Issue 13, p1684 

    Evaluates hydrogen-plasma-induced defects in silicon semiconductors by positron annihilation. Presence of voidlike structures in a defective layer; Correlation between the Doppler broadening parameter for the gamma rays and hydrogen coverage of the void surfaces; Release of hydrogen from the voids.

  • Observation of interface defects in thermally oxidized SiC using positron annihilation. Dekker, James; Saarinen, Kimmo; Ólafsson, Halldór; Sveinbjörnsson, Einar Ö. // Applied Physics Letters;3/31/2003, Vol. 82 Issue 13, p2020 

    Positron annihilation has been applied to study thermally oxidized 4H- and 6H(-SiC. The SiC/SiO[SUB2] interface is found to contain a high density of open-volume defects. The positron trapping at the interface defects correlates with the charge of the interface determined by capacitance-voltage...

  • Early stages of void formation in Al-Cu lines studied using positron annihilation. Simpson, P.J.; Umlor, M.T. // Applied Physics Letters;7/4/1994, Vol. 65 Issue 1, p52 

    Examines the formation of voids in SiO[sub 2]-passivated copper lines using positron annihilation spectroscopy. Existence of voids at the interface between the Al alloy lines and the SiO[sub 2] passivation; Observation of changes in the Doppler-broadening S parameter; Factors contributing to...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics